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Amplitude
Half the difference between the minimum and maximum values of the range. Only periodic functions with a bounded range have an amplitude. Essentially, amplitude is the radius of the range.

Analysis of a Function
An investigation based on the properties of numbers.

Arithmetic Sequence
A sequence which has a constant difference between terms.
 e.g. 1, 5, 9, 13, 17 or 12, 7, 2, –3, –8, –13, –18

Box Plot
A data display that shows the fivenumber summary.
 Note: Not to be confused with box and whisker plots.

Census
An official periodic count.

Central Angle
 An angle in a circle with vertex at the circle's center.

Common Difference
The difference between any two consecutive terms in an arithmetic progression.

Common Ratio
The ratio of a term to the previous term.
e.g. The geometric series 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, . . . has common ratio r = 2.

Complementary Events
Generally, there is only one event B such that A and B are both mutually exclusive and exhaustive; that event is the complement of A.
 e.g. A coin is flipped and one assumes it cannot land on its edge. It can either land on "heads" or on "tails" Because these two events are complementary, we have:
 Pr(heads)+Pr(tails)=1.

Conditional Probability
A probability that is computed based on the assumption that some event has already occurred. The probability of event B given that event A has occurred is written P(BA).

Conjugate
The result of writing sum of two terms as a difference or viceversa.
Note: Conjugates are similar to, but not the same as, complex conjugates.

Control Chart
A chart on which observed values of a variable are plotted.

Cosecant
The trig function cosecant, written csc^{θ}. Csc^{θ} equals 1 over sin^{θ}.

Cotangent
The trig function cotangent, written cot^{θ}. Cot^{θ} equals 1/ tan^{θ} or cos^{θ}/ sin^{θ}.

Coterminal Angle
Angles which, drawn in standard position, share a terminal side.
e.g. 60°, 300°, and 780° are all coterminal.

Decibel
A unit used to express the intensity of a sound wave.

Directrix
A fixed reference line, situated on the convex side of a conic section, that is used when defining or calculating its eccentricity.

Discontinuity
A point at which the graph of a relation or function is not connected.

Distribution
To multiply out the parts of an expression.
 e.g. 3x(x + 8) = 3x·x + 3x·8
 = 3x2 + 24x

Dot Plot
An alternative to a bar chart or line graph. Each value is recorded as a dot, so that the frequencies for each value can easily be counted.

e
e≈ 2.7182818284... is a transcendental number encountered when working with exponential models and exponential functions. e is also the base of the natural logarithm.

Ellipse
A conic section which is essentially a stretched circle.
 formula: distance[P,F1] + distance[P,F2] = 2 a, where a is a positive constant.

End Behavior
For polynomials, the end behavior is indicated by drawing the positions of the arms of the graph, which may be pointed up or down.

Experimental Probability
Experimental probability of an event is the ratio of the number of times the event occurs to the total number of trials.

Experimental Study
A study in which conditions are under the direct control of the investigator.

Explicit Formula
A formula that allows direct computation of any term for a sequence.

Exponent Rules & Properties
 Definitions
 1. a^{n} = a·a·a···a (n times)
 2. a^{0 }= 1 (a ≠ 0)
 3. a^{n}= 1/a^{n} (a ≠ 0)
 4. a^{m/n}=^{ n }\/^{}a^{m} or (^{n}\/^{}a)^{m} (a ≥ 0, m ≥ 0, n > 0)
 Combining
 1. multiplication: a^{x}a^{y} = a^{x} ^{+ y}
 2. division: a^{x}/a^{y}=a^{xy} (a ≠ 0)
 3. powers: (a^{x})^{y} = a^{xy}
 Distributing (a ≥ 0, b ≥ 0)
 1. (ab)^{x} = a^{x}b^{x }
 2. (a/b)^{x} = a^{x}/b^{x} (b ≠ 0)
 Careful!!
 1. (a + b)^{n} ≠ a^{n} + b^{n}
 2. (a – b)^{n }≠ a^{n} – b^{n}

