Math Vocabulary: Algebra II

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Math Vocabulary: Algebra II
2010-08-30 12:26:03
Algebra Algebra II Math High school Math Vocabulary Math Vocabulary

Math Vocabulary as first introduced in Algebra II
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  1. Amplitude
    Half the difference between the minimum and maximum values of the range. Only periodic functions with a bounded range have an amplitude. Essentially, amplitude is the radius of the range.
  2. Analysis of a Function
    An investigation based on the properties of numbers.
  3. Arithmetic Sequence
    A sequence which has a constant difference between terms.

    • e.g. 1, 5, 9, 13, 17 or 12, 7, 2, –3, –8, –13, –18
  4. Box Plot
    A data display that shows the five-number summary.

    • Note: Not to be confused with box and whisker plots.
  5. Census
    An official periodic count.
  6. Central Angle
    • An angle in a circle with vertex at the circle's center.
  7. Common Difference
    The difference between any two consecutive terms in an arithmetic progression.
  8. Common Ratio
    The ratio of a term to the previous term.

    e.g. The geometric series 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, . . . has common ratio r = 2.
  9. Complementary Events
    Generally, there is only one event B such that A and B are both mutually exclusive and exhaustive; that event is the complement of A.

    • e.g. A coin is flipped and one assumes it cannot land on its edge. It can either land on "heads" or on "tails" Because these two events are complementary, we have:
    • Pr(heads)+Pr(tails)=1.
  10. Conditional Probability
    A probability that is computed based on the assumption that some event has already occurred. The probability of event B given that event A has occurred is written P(B|A).
  11. Conjugate
    The result of writing sum of two terms as a difference or vice-versa.

    Note: Conjugates are similar to, but not the same as, complex conjugates.
  12. Control Chart
    A chart on which observed values of a variable are plotted.
  13. Cosecant
    The trig function cosecant, written cscθ. Cscθ equals 1 over sinθ.
  14. Cotangent
    The trig function cotangent, written cotθ. Cotθ equals 1/ tanθ or cosθ/ sinθ.
  15. Coterminal Angle
    Angles which, drawn in standard position, share a terminal side.

    e.g. 60°, -300°, and 780° are all coterminal.
  16. Decibel
    A unit used to express the intensity of a sound wave.
  17. Directrix
    A fixed reference line, situated on the convex side of a conic section, that is used when defining or calculating its eccentricity.
  18. Discontinuity
    A point at which the graph of a relation or function is not connected.
  19. Distribution
    To multiply out the parts of an expression.

    • e.g. 3x(x + 8) = 3x·x + 3x·8
    • = 3x2 + 24x
  20. Dot Plot
    An alternative to a bar chart or line graph. Each value is recorded as a dot, so that the frequencies for each value can easily be counted.
  21. e
    e≈ 2.7182818284... is a transcendental number encountered when working with exponential models and exponential functions. e is also the base of the natural logarithm.
  22. Ellipse
    A conic section which is essentially a stretched circle.

    • formula: distance[P,F1] + distance[P,F2] = 2 a, where a is a positive constant.
  23. End Behavior
    For polynomials, the end behavior is indicated by drawing the positions of the arms of the graph, which may be pointed up or down.
  24. Experimental Probability
    Experimental probability of an event is the ratio of the number of times the event occurs to the total number of trials.
  25. Experimental Study
    A study in which conditions are under the direct control of the investigator.
  26. Explicit Formula
    A formula that allows direct computation of any term for a sequence.
  27. Exponent Rules & Properties
    • Definitions
    • 1. an = a·a·a···a (n times)
    • 2. a0 = 1 (a ≠ 0)
    • 3. a-n= 1/an (a ≠ 0)
    • 4. am/n= n \/---am or (n\/---a)m (a ≥ 0, m ≥ 0, n > 0)
    • Combining
    • 1. multiplication: axay = ax + y
    • 2. division: ax/ay=ax-y (a ≠ 0)
    • 3. powers: (ax)y = axy
    • Distributing (a ≥ 0, b ≥ 0)
    • 1. (ab)x = axbx
    • 2. (a/b)x = ax/bx (b ≠ 0)
    • Careful!!
    • 1. (a + b)n ≠ an + bn
    • 2. (a – b)n ≠ an – bn