Phonology Set 2

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Phonology Set 2
2015-07-26 12:21:38

SIL-UND 2015
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  1. Association of tones with tone-bearing units
    On the assumption that tones are on a separate tier from the segmental material (consonants and vowels), there is a step in which the tones must be linked, or associated, with the tone bearing units. 28
  2. Autosegmental
    Used to refer to the idea that in phonological structure certain features operate somewhat independently of other features. Used in the area of tones, but other features may be constructed this way as well. 28
  3. Basic form
    The representation of that morpheme by which (in some theories of phonology) all non-suppletive allomorphs can be direived through the application of phonological rules. 17
  4. Bracket erasure
    Claimed within certain theories of phonology that the "brackets" that formally mark the edges of morphemes, which come with the morphemes as they are put together to form words, are eliminated (erased) at a certain point, making the accessibility of morpheme boundary information unavailable to the phonology. Related to postlexical rules. 22
  5. Declination
    Normal, gradual fall in pitch observed in a particular domain such as a clause or sentence. 27
  6. Default tone
    In some approaches to tone analysis, a tone may be designed as the tone that is supplied when the lexical representation does not otherwise indicate tone. 28
  7. Derivation
    The mapping of a lexical form into its corespondent surface form in a series of steps, each defined by a rule. 17
  8. Domain for intonation
    An intonation countour is relevant for a particular span of words. 27
  9. Domain of stress assignment
    For the purpose of applying stress rules, it is important to know whether one counts syllables from the edge (beginning or end) of a word or from the edge of a root (less common). 27
  10. Epenthetic sounds
    Vowels and consonants are sometimes inserted into the phonogical string, especially to make words more pronounceable. 24
  11. Feature geometry
    Approach to the organization of features in which features are hierarchically arranged under nodes, some features dominating other features. 17
  12. Foot (Metrical foot)
    Grouping of syllables or moras in which one of them is stronger than the other - stronger syllable or mora is the head. 29
  13. Fundamental Frequency
    Corresponds to the pitch of a sound as we hear it. Expressed in cycles per second, Hz. 26
  14. Geminates
    Phonetically long segments that are taken as occupying two positions on the skeleton. 21
  15. True geminantes
    Formalized as a single feature array associated with two positions. 21
  16. False geminantes
    Formalized as a sequence of two identical feature arrays that are associated with two position son the skeleton. 21
  17. Homorganic
    Consonants produced at the same place of articulation. mb. 17
  18. Iam, Iambic
    ____ stress refers to right-headed prominence in a foot. "prefer" - an _____ is a foot that has this characteristic. 29
  19. Intonation
    Use of pitch variatin for linguistic purposes other than distinguishing between lexical or grammatical meaning. 27
  20. Intonation melodies
    Distinctive pitch patterns used for a variety of purposes other than distinguishing between lexical or gramatical meaning. 27
  21. Modal
    _____ voice is the term applied to the "normal" production of vowels, in contrast to marked situations such as breath or creaky voice. 20
  22. Neutralization
    Refers to situations in which an existing contrast in a language is not relevant. 17
  23. Node
    Part of the architecture of features proposed in feature geometries. Some are simply labeled, some are proposed to be features themselves. 17
  24. Nucleus of intonation melody
    Locus of the intonation melody in the relevant domain. 27
  25. Phonation types
    refers to the different configurations of the vocal folds that are relevant for the language... breathy, modal, creaky, etc. 20.
  26. Range
    with respect to fundamental frequency is the set of possibilities between the highest FF and the lowest FF that a speaker or group of speakers (ie adult males) uses. 26
  27. Strengthening
    refers to the enhancement of a sound to make it more distinct from other sounds to which it is adjacent. Fortition syn. Opposite of Lenition. 22
  28. Stress
    Abstract notion that refers tothe prominence of one syllable in a domain over other syllables. 29
  29. Tone
    Contrastive use of pitch melodies to distinguish lexical items. 28
  30. Tone melodies
    Arrangements of pitch that a language uses for distinuishing lexical items. 28
  31. Trochaic, Trochee
    ____ stress refers to a left-heawded prominence in a foot. "table". _____ is a foot that has this characteristic. 29
  32. Underspecified
    The values of a particular feature may be __________ (not made explicit) in a certain context or generally, at some level of representation. 17
  33. Weakening
    refers to a phonological process that makes a sound more like its context. Rules of assimilation are one kind, as are rules of intervocalic voicing, nasalization, and spirantization.