Cell Biology Day 11

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Cell Biology Day 11
2015-07-26 16:41:40
Day 11 of Cell Biology glossary
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  1. Capsule
    The capsule is a sticky layer of carbohydrate or protein on the outer surface of the cell wall of many prokaryotes.
  2. Cell wall
    A protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists. In plant cells, the wall is formed of cellulose fibers embedded in a polysaccharide-protein matrix. The primary cell wall is thin and flexible, whereas the secondary cell wall is stronger and more rigid and is the primary constituent of wood.
  3. Chloroplast
    An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
  4. Cytoplasm
    The entire contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus, and bounded by the plasma membrane.
  5. Cytosol
    The semifluid portion of the cytoplasm.
  6. Endosymbiotic theory
    A theory about the origin of the eukaryotic cell maintaining that the forerunners of eukaryotic cells were symbiotic associations of prokaryotic cells living inside larger prokaryotes.
  7. Fimbriae
    Some bacteria have small projections on their surface called fimbriae.
  8. flagella
    Some bacteria have flagella attached to the cell wall (note flagellum = singular), which allow the bacteria to swim
  9. Histone
    A small protein with a high proportion of positively charged amino acids that binds to the negatively charged DNA and plays a key role in its chromatin structure.
  10. Mitochondrion
    (plural, mitochondria) An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.