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1) what does vpn stand for
2)what does a vpn do & what are some examples of vpn protocol
1) virtual private network
2) A vpn provides security examples-PPTP & L2TP
VLAN is ?
vlan is software based
what does WAN stand for?
What is a WAN?
Wireless Area Network
A bunch of LAN's put together, must have a router or layer 3 switch to communicate
LAN's are connected via a?
Example of Servers?
web, mail, fax, file
What does MPLS stand for?
What are the advantages of MPLS?
Multiprotocol label switching
physical layout and flexibility
what is P2P?
what is an example of P2P
Peer to Peer networks
No central administration
what do client/server networks do?
central server provide, advertise and manage access to network resources
advantages and disadvantages?
all computers are connected to a single cable
- Initially less expensive; if there is a problem with a cable or node, the entire network goes down.
- No fault tolerance
Explain a Star?
Advantages and disadvantages?
Each computer is connected to a central point
- Easy to set up, expand, and detect faults
- Any failure will have very little effect on the network;
- expensive to install, extra hardware required
Advantages and disadvantages?
- A method of transmitting data around a ring is called token passing.
- Uses tokens, no collisions
Prevents network collision; data packets must pass through every computer between the sender and recipient, therefore it is slower
- uses point to point
- failure of a single node doesnt affect network
- provides high level of redundancy
- uses mpls
- can handle heavy traffic
Point to Point?
connection between two routers, giving you communication path
most popular with wireless
Point to Multipoint?
One point to multiple connections
a combination of two or more types of physical or logical network topologies working together within the same network
ex: physical star, logical bus
What is a backbone?
what is a segment?
where everyone gets there connection from
short section of the network that is not part of the backbone
- file transfer protocol
- terminal network emulation
- simple mail transfer protocol
- simple network management protocol
- domain name service
- Network File System
transmission control protocol (reliable)
user datagram protocol (unreliable)
What does transport- layer 4 do?
Windowing- amount of data a sender is allowed to transmit without having received an acknowledgement
flow control- allow receiver to control amount of data sent by sender
Network-layer 3 uses what types address?
popular network devices?
logical address and IP address
routers, layer 3 switches and hardware based firewalls
IPSEC common routing protocols used are?
Internet protocol security
- RIP-routing information protocol
- EIGRP-enhanced interior gatewat routing protocol
- OSPF-open shortest path first
- ping, ICMP, IGMP, IP
Data link - layer 2?
Data link sublayers?
transmits network layer messages into bits for the physical layer
MAC-media access control-how packets are placed on the media
LLC- logical link control- identifying network layer protocols(802.2 upper half of data link layer)
popular devices that work at data link layer?
- switches-break up collision domains
- wireless access points
- ethernet, PPP, PPFP, 802.3
physical- layer 1?
- provides an interface for the DTE(data terminal equipment)
- The last communication for the carrier
- DCE(data communication equipment) connected to the DTE
bus, star, ring, mesh, hybrid
NIC(network interface cards), transceivers,transmitters, repeaters, hubs
a plenum is created by a false ceiling or false floor; contains high voltage wiring to prevent fires
does not suffer interference from EMI
coaxial cable uses a BNC(british naval connector)and F-type
current ethernet standards?
what is a crimping tool?
110 block- patch panel
crimping tool is used to terminate cable
none, SOLID COPPER
Thinnet, 10Base2, stranded copper
THicknet, 10Base5, solid copper
cable tv, none, solid copper
cable tv/modem, none or HPNA, solid copper
ARCnet, n/a, solid/stranded
unshielded twisted pair
shielded twisted pair-protection from interference and crosstalk
Registered Jack-11 used for phone lines
Registered jack -45 identifies,
Ethernet 10Base-t, 100Base-tx, 1000Base-t
fiber optic cable media?
comes in glass or plastic
- transmits digital signal using light
- immune to EFI & RFI
- can transmit up to 40 kilometers(25miles)
- Single mode fiber optic
- data rates of up to 10Gb/sec are possible at distances of over 60 kilometers
- used for longer cable runs
- yellow in color
- Multimode fiber optic
- shorter ranges
- light is dispersed over numerous paths
- orange in color
- 100 mb up to 2 km (100Base-fx)
- 1GB for distances up to 500-600 meters(1000Base-lx, 1000Base-sx)
- 10Gb for distances up to 300 meters(10GBase-SR)
- ST-straight tip
- SC-subscriber connector or standard connector
- SFF-small form factor
- LC-local connector
allows a NIC or other networking device to connect to a different type of media