Card Set Information
What disease has a corkscrew x-ray?
What disease has an apple core x-ray?
What disease has a stacked coin x-ray?
What disease has a thumbprint x-ray?
What disease has an abrupt cutoff x-ray?
What disease has a barium clumping x-ray?
What disease has a bird's beak x-ray?
What disease has a string sign x-ray?
What diseases have solid dysphagia?
Schatzki's rings, stricture, cancer
What diseases have solid and liquid
Esophageal spasm, scleroderma, achalasia
What is Barrett's Esophagus?
Metaplasia, inc AdenoCA risk
What are Esophageal Varices?
Vomit blood everywhere, portal HTN
What is Mallory-Weiss?
Tear LES mucosa, chronic vomiters
What is Boerhaave's?
Tear all layers of esophagus, left-sided pneumo /pain/ effusion
What is Achalasia?
Lost LES Auerbach's, bird's beak, Chaga's, choke on solids
What is Hirschsprung's?
Lost rectum Auerbach's, no meconium passage
What is a Zenker's diverticulum?
Cough undigested food from above UES, halitosis
What is a Traction diverticulum?
Eat big bolus => gets stuck above LES
What is Plummer-Vinson syndrome?
Esophageal webs, spoon nails, Fe-deficiency anemia
What are Schatzki rings?
Esophageal webs in
What is a TE fistula?
Choke w / each feeding
What is an Esophageal atresia w TE
Vomit w 1st feeding, huge gastric bubble
What is Duodenal atresia?
Bilious vomiting w 1" feed, double bubble, Down's
What is Pyloric stenosis?
Projectile vomiting (3-4 wk old), RUQ olive mass
How does Choanal atresia present?
Turns blue with feeding
How is the Tetrology of Fallot
presentation Turns blue with Crying
What makes Scleroderma unique?
dec LES pressure
What makes Esophageal spasms unique?
What makes Achalasia unique?
dec Peristalsis and inc LES pressure
What disease has a RUQ olive mass?
What disease has a RLQ sausage mass?
What is a Bezoar?
Mass of hair or vegetables => antrum obstruction
What is Gastritis type A?
Upper GI bleed, anti-parietal cell Ab
What is Gastritis type B?
Upper GI bleed, spicy foods, H. pylori
What is a Duodenal ulcer?
Too much acid pain after meal/ at night, type O blood, H. pylori, pain relieved by eating
What is a Gastric ulcer?
Broken mucus layer: pain during meal, NSAIDs, typeA blood
What is a Sliding hiatal hernia?
Fundus slides from esophageal hiatus to thorax =>sucks acid into thorax
What is a Rolling hiatal hernia?
Fundus sticks through hole in diaphragm, strangulates bowel "rolls through a bole"
What is Menetrier's disease?
Protein-losing, thick stomach rugal folds
What defines Constipation?
< 3 BM per week
What defines Diarrhea?
>200g per day
What is Osmotic diarrhea?
What is Secretory diarrhea?
What is Inflammatory diarrhea?
What is Celiac sprue?
Jejunum, wheat allergy, villous atrophy, anti-gliadal Ab
What is Tropical sprue?
Ileum celiac sprue
What is Mesenteric ischemia?
Pain out of proportion to exam
What bugs cause
Amoeba (E. histolytica)
What is the difference b/w 1° Biliary
Cirrhosis(PBC) and 1° Sclerosing Cholangitis(PSC)?
1° Biliary 1° Biliary Cirrhosis:
anti-mitochondrial Ab, bile ductules destroyed, xanthelasma
1° Sclerosing Cholangitis:
p-ANCA Ab, bile duct inflammation, beading, onion skinning, associated w/ uc
What is Ascending Cholangitis?
Common duct stone gets infected
What are the signs of alcoholic cirrhosis?
Spider angioma, palmar erythema, Dupuytren's contractions, gynecomastia
What is Hepatorenal Syndrome?
Pts w liver disease build up liver toxins that cause renal failure
What is Cholangitis?
Inflammation of bile duct => Charcot's triad, Reynold's pentad
What is Cholecystitis?
Inflammation of gall bladder => Murphy's sign
What is Cholelithiasis?
Formation of gallstones => RUQ colic
What is Choledocholithiasis?
Gallstone obstructs bile duct
What is Cholestasis?
Obstruction of bile duct => pruritis, inc alkaline phosphatase, jaundice
What is Conjugated bilirubin?
water soluble "direct"
What is Unconjugated bilirubin?
Fat soluble "indirect"
What is the most common type of
Cholesterol (can't sec on x-ray)
What type of gallstones can be seen on x-ray?
What is a Xanthoma?
Cholesterol buildup (elbow or Achilles)
What is a Xanthelasma?
Triglyceride buildup (under eye)
What does high cholesterol cause?
What do high triglycerides cause?
What is Type 1 Hyperlipidemia?
Bad Liver Lipoprotein lipase (chylomicron)
What is Type 2a Hyperlipidemia?
Bad LDL or B-100 receptors: trapped in ER (LDL only)
What is Type 2b Hyperlipidemia?
Less LDL/VLDL receptors (LDL/VLDL)
What is Type 3 Hyperlipidemia?
Bad Apo E (IDL/VLDL)
What is Type 4 Hyperlipidemia?
Bad Adipose LL (VLDL only)
What is Type 5 Hyperlipidemia?
Bad C2 (VLDL/CM) b / c C2 stimulates LL
What is Crigler-Najjar?
Unconjugated bilirubin, usually in infants
What is Gilbert's syndrome?
Glucuronyl transferase is saturated => stress unconjugugated bilirubin
What is Rotor's?
Bad bilirubin storage => conjugated bilirubin
What is Dubin-Johnson?
Bad bilirubin excretion => black liver
What is Cullen's sign?
Bleed around umbilicus => hemorrhagic pancreatitis
What is Turner's sign?
Bleed into flank => hemorrhagic pancreatitis
What tests are used for following
• Amylase - sensitive, breaks down carbs
• Lipase - specific, breaks down TG s
What does Ranson's criteria tell you?
Poor prognosis for pancreatitis pts
What is Ranson's criteria at presentation?
: >16K/f.i-L (infection)
: >55 (usually multiple illnesses)
: >200 mg/ dL (islet cells are fried)
: >350 IO/L (cell death)
: >250 IU/L (cell death)
What is Ranson's criteria at 48hr?
"BuCH was a SOB"
: inc >5mg/dL (dec renal blood flow)
: <8 mg/ dL (saponification)
: drops > 10% (bleed into pancreas)
Sequester > 6 L fl w. d => "3rd spacing
: <60mm Hg (fluid/protein leak -7
Base deficit >4mEq/L (diarrhea =>pancreatic enzyn"les are dead)
What is Carcinoid syndrome?
Diarrhea, flushing, wheezing
What produces Currant Jelly sputum?
What produces Currant Jelly stool?
What is Gardener's syndrome?
Familial polyposis w / bone tumors
What is Turcot's syndrome?
Familial polyposis w / brain tumors
What is Familial polyposis?
100% risk of colon cancer, APC defect=> annual colonoscopy at 5 y/o
What is Peutz-Jegher syndrome?
Hyperpigmented mucosa => dark gums/vagina
What is Crohn's disease?
IBD w / cobblestones, melena, creeping fat, fistulas
What is Ulcerative colitis?
IBD w pseudopolyps, hematochezia, lead pipe colon,toxic megacolon
What is Intussusception?
Currant jelly stool, stacked coin enema, sx come and go
How does Diverticulosis present?
How does Diverticulitis present?
How does Spastic Colon present?
Intermittent severe cramps
How does IBS present?
Alternating diarrhea/ constipation
How do External Hemorrhoids present?
How do Internal Hemorrhoids present?
What is Pseudomembranous Colitis?
Overgrowth of C. difficile due to normal flora being killed off, usually by Clindamycin use
What is Whipple's disease?
T. whippleii destroy GI tract, then spread causing malabsorption, arthralgia
What color is an upper GI bleed?
What color is a lower GI bleed?
What adds color to stool?
What is the default color of stool?
What is the default color of urine?