Micro Practical II

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Micro Practical II
2015-07-29 06:53:44
Lab Micro

Practical II
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  1. Adding water to a polymer to break the covalent bonds between monomers.
    Polymer hydrolysis
  2. Enzymes secreted to the outside of the bacterial cell that speed up polymer hydrolysis.
  3. Large polymers generally hydrophobic (repelling water) and usually containing an alcohol such as glycerol and one or more fatty acids.
  4. An enzyme that will break down protein (not just one)
  5. Degradation process
  6. An organism growing in milk cable of digesting the Casein (causes clearing of the milk)
  7. A protein derived from collagen found in hide and milk.
  8. Extracellular nucleases
  9. Are made of nucleotide monomers (DNA & RNA are examples)
    Nucleic Acide
  10. Process that some bacteria can destroy red blood cells.
  11. Partially destroy/incomplete destruction of RBC and hemoglobin
    Alpha hemolysis
  12. Complete destruction of RBC and hemoglobin.
    Beta Hemolysis
  13. a.k.a. gamma hemolysis - can not break down RBC
  14. Is the anaerobic in complete breakdown of carbohydrates in cells. CO2
  15. Phenol red - changes color under basic and acidic conditions.
    pH indicator
  16. Start with inorganic molecules and convert to H2S
  17. Start with Organic molecules and converts to H2S
  18. Small inverted tube designed to trap gas
    Durham tube
  19. Means gram negative, enteric, bacillus shaped bacteria.
  20. Means intestinal.
  21. Means gram negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria.
  22. Is a bacterial enzyme that degrades hydrogen peroxide H2O2
  23. Is an enzyme that transfers electrons from cytochrome chain.
  24. Human enzyme (similar to Catalase) which is an antimicrobial substance that degrades H2O2 into substances that are toxic to bacteria and will kill them.
  25. Converting nitrate (NO3) into nitrite (NO2) 
    Nitrate Respiration
  26. 2nd reaction converting nitrite (NO2) into nitrogen gas (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O)
  27. Enzyme that speeds up denitrification.
    Nitrite reductase
  28. Enzyme that speeds up Nitrate respiration.
    Nitrate reductase
  29. Tube put inside test tube  to trap gas.
    Durham tube
  30. Is the anaerobic in complete breakdown of carbohydrates in cells.
  31. What is the location of organisms that produce hydrogen sulfide?
    Anywhere in the tube
  32. What is the purpose of hydrogen sulfide?
    Identifies members of enteric from other gram-bacilli-waste product of some bacteria
  33. How long can it take to develop a Voges-Poskauer test?
    Up to One hour
  34. What is the process by which nitrogen is converted between its various chemical forms. The majority of earths atmosphere is nitrogen.
    NO3->NO2->N2 & N2O
    Nitrogen Cycle
  35. Single species of microorganism
    Pure culture
  36. Kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria.
  37. Is the chemical that kills, or inhibits growth of bacteria.
  38. Name called for the antimicrobial works i.e. the microbe will either die or not be able to grow.
    Antimicrobial susceptibility (sensitive)
  39. When microbes are less treatable with one or more antimicrobials. This makes these medications less effective at treating or preventing infection.
    Antimicrobial resistance
  40. A standardized procedure used by every hospital/health department lab in the country to do antibiotic susceptibility testing.
    Kirby-Bauer method
  41. Area around the filter paper dish where there is no growth of bacteria.
    Zone of inhibition
  42. Can be produced manually by evenly spreading a high amount of bacteria onto an agar plate using a sterile cotton swab.
    Lawning technique 
  43. Is the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.
    Antimicrobial susceptibility 
  44. Antibiotic sensitivity testing, is a test which uses antibiotic impregnated wafers to test whether bacteria are affected by antibiotics. In this test, wafers containing antibiotics are placed on an agar plate where bacteria have been place, and the plate is let to incubate. If an antibiotic stops the bacteria from growing  or kills the bacteria, there will be an area around the wafer where the bacteria have not grown enough to be visible. This is the zone of inhibition.
    Disk diffusion test
  45. The purpose of the Kirby-Bauer test is?
    Is to determine the sensitivity or resistance of pathogenic aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria to various antimicrobial compounds in order to assist a physician in selecting treatment options for his or her patients.
  46. Chemical that kills vegetative cells on animate and inanimate surfaces.
  47. Used in the food industry to kill vegetative cells on already cleaned surfaces.
  48. Chemical that inhibits the growth of bacterial cells.
  49. Two adjacent thymine molecules on the same strand of DNA joined together through covalent bonds.
    Thymine dimer
  50. Process by which bacteria use the energy of visible light to repair UV damage to their DNA.
    Light repair
  51. Enzymes of DNA repair that do not depend on visible light.
    Dark repair
  52. A change in the nucleotide sequence of a cell's DNA that is then passed on to daughter cells.
  53. Range  of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.
    Electromagnetic spectrum
  54. Breakdown of carbohydrates.
  55. Agent that kills microorganisms and inactivates virus's 130nm-400nm, best wavelength for killing microbes is __________.

  56. Name the small test tube that is upside down in the media?
    Durham tube
  57. What are the two general end products of fermentation?
    Acid and NO2 (Nitrous Oxide)
  58. What media is used for the Fermentation test?
    Phenol Red (sugar) Broth

    • Sugar=lactose, sucrose, and glucose 
  59. Phenol Red - an indicator that changes color based on basic and acidic conditions.
    pH indicator 
  60. What does a positive test for Fermentation look like?
    Yellow in color
  61. gram negative, enteric, bacillus shaped
  62. What media is used for the Indole test?
    SIM Media
  63. What does a positive result for the Indole test look like?
    Pink/Red in color
  64. What does IMViC acronym stand for?
    Indole, Methyl Red, Voges-Poskauer, and Citrate
  65. What does V stand for in IMViC?
    Voges-Proskauer Broth
  66. What chemicals have to be added after incubation to determine positive from negative for the Voges-Proskauer test?
    VP-A and VP-B
  67. What media do we use for the Citrate test?
    Simmons Citrate Agar
  68. What does a negative result for the Citrate test mean for the bacteria?
    Not capable of using Citrate as their only source of carbon.
  69. What is the purpose of the Methyl red test?
    If bacteria are capable of producing acid from glucose.
  70. What reagent is used in the Methyl red test?
    Methyl red
  71. Which method uses an organic molecule to make hydrogen sulfide in the Hydrogen sulfide test?
  72. What media is used for Hydrogen Sulfide test?
    Kligler Iron Agar
  73. What does a positive result for the Hydrogen Sulfide test look like?
    Black in color
  74. What is specifically is responsible for forming the color in a positive Hydrogen Sulfide test result.
    Iron was reacting with the H2S producing the black color.
  75. Chemical change turning Nitrate (NO3) int Nitrite (NO2).
    Nitrate respiration
  76. What media is used for the Nitrate Test?
    Nitrate Broth
  77. In lab, a bacterium is found to be positive for nitrate respiration and positive for denitrification. How was this result determined?
    • Step 1. Nitrate A & B reagent added resulting in No color then Step 2.
    • Step 2. Zinc and HCl reagent added resulting in No Red Color
  78. Name the miniaturized rapid-biochemical system used in lab 34.
    Enterotube II
  79. What specific type of bacteria does Enterotube II systems identify.
  80. What is one advantage to using a miniaturized rapid biochemical system?
    Saves space in the incubator
  81. Name the molecule that bacteria use to break down hydrogen peroxide?
  82. What does a positive test for the answer to Catalase test look like?
    (+) bubbles
  83. Name the molecule that humans use to break down hydrogen peroxide?
  84. Name the molecule that determines the presence of cytochrome c, and therefore an electron transport chain, in bacteria?
  85. What does a positive test for the Oxidase test look like?
    (+) blue in color
  86. Name the procedure we use to determine if a given antibiotic will work against a particular bacterium?
    Kirby-Bauer Test
  87. What media is used in the Kirby-Bauer test?
  88. Area around antibiotic treated paper in petri dish where no bacteria has grown.
    Zone of inhibition
  89. Chemical that kills or inhibits growth of a bacteria.
  90. What is the purpose of swabbing a lawn of bacteria?
    To apply a large sample of bacteria evenly on the petri dish
  91. Antibiotic that would not work well in killing or inhibiting growth of a particular bacterium.
  92. It would be effective in killing or inhibiting growth of a bacterium.
  93. What is the best wavelength of UV light for sanitation?
  94. How does UV light damage bacteria?
    Damages the nucleotide sequences in DNA alters the causing errors in replication during reproduction. Thymine dimers
  95. What is one limitation of UV light for sanitation?
    Low penetration
  96. Why did we wrap UB light Petri dishes in foil before incubation?
    To prevent light repair
  97. What is polymer hydrolysis, and what is the molecule responsible for speeding up polymer hydrolysis in bacteria?
    Adding water to a polymer to break the covalent bond between monomers. The enzyme used is exoenzyme
  98. In Starch Hydrolysis, what are we testing for?
    Testing to see if bacterium produces Amylase
  99. What media is used in the Starch Hydrolysis test?
    Starch Agar
  100. What reagent is added to determine positive from negative in the Starch Hydrolysis test?
  101. What does a negative test for Starch Hydrolysis test look like?
    Blue/black color around bacterial growth
  102. What does a positive test for the Starch Hydrolysis test mean?
    (+)Means that the bacterium is capable of producing Amylase
  103. What molecule hydrolysis lipids?
  104. What is the media used in the Lipid Hydrolysis test?
    Spirit Blue Lipid Agar
  105. What does a positive test for Lipid Hydrolysis look like?
    (+)Intense blue color under the bacterial growth
  106. In the Protein Hydrolysis test, what molecule hydrolysis gelatin?
  107. Name the reagent used in the gelatin test?
    Trichloroactic Acid
  108. How does trichloroactic acid work in the Gelatin test?
    Pools together in clumps
  109. What does a positive result look like for the gelatin test?
    No white color present
  110. Name the protein found in Milk?
  111. What media used to test for hydrolysis of the protein found in milk?
    Skim milk nutrient agar
  112. What would a positive test look like in hydrolysis of the protein found in milk?
    No white color around bacterial growth
  113. Name the molecule that is responsible for nucleic acid hydrolysis?
  114. Name the agar used in the Nucleic Acid hydrolysis test?
    DNase Agar
  115. What does a negative result look like for the Nucleic Acid hydrolysis test?
    White in color around bacterial growth
  116. What does a positive result from the Nucleic Acid hydrolysis test mean?
    Means the bacterium produced exonuclease
  117. Define Beta Hemolysis?
    Complete breakdown of RBC
  118. What does a positive test result look like for Beta Hemolysis look like?
    No red color around bacterial growth
  119. What agar was used in the Hemolysis test?
    Blood agar
  120. Name the molecule that destroys RBC?
  121. Define nonhemolytic (gamma hemolysis)
    Not capable of destroying RBC
  122. Starch Hydrolysis Test
    • Starch Agar
    • Amylase
    • Iodine (black in starch)
    • + No blue/black
    • - blue/black
    • +Amylase
  123. Lipid Hyrolysis Test
    • Spirit Blue Lipid Agar
    • Lipase
    • No reagent
    • + Intense blue
    • -  no intense blue
    • + Lipase
  124. Casein Hydrolysis Test
    • Skim milk nutrient agar
    • Casease
    • No reagent
    • + No white
    • - White
    • + Casease 
  125. Gelatin Hydrolysis Test
    • Gelatin Nutrient Agar
    • Gelatinase
    • Trichloroactic Acid
    • + No White cold
    • -  White
    • + Gelatinase
  126. Nuclease Test
    • DNase Agar
    • exonuclease
    • HCl
    • + No whit
    • - white
    • + Exonuclease
  127. Hemolysis test
    • Blood agar
    • hemolysin
    • No reagent
    • + Beta No red, Alpha greenish
    • - gamma red
    • + complete or incomplete
  128. Sugar Fermentation Test

    Lactose, Sucrose, Glucose
    • Phenol Red (sugar) broth
    • Fermentation (acid and gas)
    • No reagent
    • + yellow color
    • - any other color
    • + capable of fermenting sugar
  129. Hydrogen Sulfide Test
    • Kligler Iron agar
    • (H2S)
    • No reagent
    • + black color anywhere
    • - No black color
    • +H2S produced
  130. Indole Test
    • SIM Media (broth/agar)
    • Indole
    • Indole after incubation
    • + PINK
    • - NO pink
    • + capable of making indole
  131. Methyl Red Test
    • MRVP Broth
    • Glucose to make acid
    • Methyl Red after incubation
    • + Red Color
    • - any other color
    • + capable of using glucose to make acid
  132. Voges-Poskauer Test
    • MRVP Broth
    • 2,3 butanediol and acetoin
    • VP-A and VP-B
    • + Red Color in media
    • - any other color
    • + Capable of producing 2,3 butanediol and acetone
  133. Citrate Test
    • Simmons Citrate Agar
    • Citrate only carbon source
    • No reagent
    • + blue color anywhere in media
    • - green color anywhere in media
    • + citrate capable only source of making carbon
  134. Nitrate Respiration/Denitrification Test
    • Nitrate Broth
    • Carry out Nitrate Respiration and Denitrification
    • Step 1 Nitrate A & B (+) Red=Nitrate (-) no color go to Step 2 
    • Step 2 Zinc & HCl + Not red Denitrification