Phonology Set 2.txt

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Phonology Set 2.txt
2015-07-29 20:19:48

SIL-UND 2015 Edited
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  1. Association of tones with tone-bearing units
    On the assumption that tones are on a separate tier from the segmental material (consonants and vowels), there is a step in which the tones must be linked, or associated, with the tone bearing units. 28
  2. Autosegmental
    Used to refer to the idea that in phonological structure certain features operate somewhat independently of other features. Used in the area of tones, but other features may be constructed this way as well. 28
  3. Basic form
    The representation of that morpheme by which (in some theories of phonology) all non-suppletive allomorphs can be direived through the application of phonological rules. 17
  4. Bracket erasure
    Claimed within certain theories of phonology that the "brackets" that formally mark the edges of morphemes, which come with the morphemes as they are put together to form words, are eliminated (erased) at a certain point, making the accessibility of morpheme boundary information unavailable to the phonology. Related to postlexical rules. 22
  5. Declination
    Normal, gradual fall in pitch observed in a particular domain such as a clause or sentence. 27
  6. Default tone
    In some approaches to tone analysis, a tone may be designed as the tone that is supplied when the lexical representation does not otherwise indicate tone. 28
  7. Derivation
    The mapping of a lexical form into its corespondent surface form in a series of steps, each defined by a rule. 17
  8. Domain for intonation
    An intonation countour is relevant for a particular span of words. 27
  9. Domain of stress assignment
    For the purpose of applying stress rules, it is important to know whether one counts syllables from the edge (beginning or end) of a word or from the edge of a root (less common). 27
  10. Epenthetic sounds
    Vowels and consonants are sometimes inserted into the phonogical string, especially to make words more pronounceable. 24
  11. Feature geometry
    Approach to the organization of features in which features are hierarchically arranged under nodes, some features dominating other features. 17
  12. Foot (Metrical foot)
    Grouping of syllables or moras in which one of them is stronger than the other - stronger syllable or mora is the head. 29
  13. Fundamental Frequency
    Corresponds to the pitch of a sound as we hear it. Expressed in cycles per second, Hz. 26
  14. Geminates
    Phonetically long segments that are taken as occupying two positions on the skeleton. 21
  15. True geminantes
    Formalized as a single feature array associated with two positions. 21
  16. False geminantes
    Formalized as a sequence of two identical feature arrays that are associated with two position son the skeleton. 21
  17. Homorganic
    Consonants produced at the same place of articulation. mb. 17
  18. Iam, Iambic
    ____ stress refers to right-headed prominence in a foot. "prefer" - an _____ is a foot that has this characteristic. 29
  19. Intonation
    Use of pitch variatin for linguistic purposes other than distinguishing between lexical or grammatical meaning. 27
  20. Intonation melodies
    Distinctive pitch patterns used for a variety of purposes other than distinguishing between lexical or gramatical meaning. 27
  21. Modal
    _____ voice is the term applied to the "normal" production of vowels, in contrast to marked situations such as breath or creaky voice. 20
  22. Neutralization
    Refers to situations in which an existing contrast in a language is not relevant. 17
  23. Node
    Part of the architecture of features proposed in feature geometries. Some are simply labeled, some are proposed to be features themselves. 17
  24. Nucleus of intonation melody
    Locus of the intonation melody in the relevant domain. 27
  25. Phonation types
    refers to the different configurations of the vocal folds that are relevant for the language... breathy, modal, creaky, etc. 20.
  26. Range
    with respect to fundamental frequency is the set of possibilities between the highest FF and the lowest FF that a speaker or group of speakers (ie adult males) uses. 26
  27. Strengthening
    refers to the enhancement of a sound to make it more distinct from other sounds to which it is adjacent. Fortition syn. Opposite of Lenition. 22
  28. Stress
    Abstract notion that refers tothe prominence of one syllable in a domain over other syllables. 29
  29. Tone
    Contrastive use of pitch melodies to distinguish lexical items. 28
  30. Tone melodies
    Arrangements of pitch that a language uses for distinuishing lexical items. 28
  31. Trochaic, Trochee
    ____ stress refers to a left-heawded prominence in a foot. "table". _____ is a foot that has this characteristic. 29
  32. Underspecified
    The values of a particular feature may be __________ (not made explicit) in a certain context or generally, at some level of representation. 17
  33. Weakening
    refers to a phonological process that makes a sound more like its context. Rules of assimilation are one kind, as are rules of intervocalic voicing, nasalization, and spirantization.
  34. Where are nasals best contrasted
    In front of a vowel
  35. Labial node places
    Bilabial, Labio-dental
  36. Coronal node places
    Inter-dental, Dental, Alveolar, Post-alveolar, palatal
  37. Dorsal node places
    Velar, uvular
  38. Language rairly exploits the difference between bilabilal and...
  39. Very few languages exploit contrast between dental and...
  40. What sort of articulation uses the tongue tip?
  41. What sort of articulation uses the tongue blade?
  42. [high] values for velars
  43. [high] value for uvulars
  44. Regressive/anticipatory palatalization
    tongue anticipates position of following vowel
  45. progressive palatalization
    close front vowel procedes the consonant it affects
  46. Debuccalization
    Glottal stop as allophone of another stop
  47. [+anterior]
    sounds produced at or in front of the alveolar ridge
  48. [+distributed]
    Sounds produced with constriction formed by the tongue front that extends for a considerable distance along the direction of airflow
  49. [+strident]
    sounds marked acoustically by greater noisiness than non________ conterparts
  50. Five phonation types in order
    • Breathy voice
    • slack
    • modal
    • stiff
    • creaky
  51. Lenition happens when
    final position
  52. Fortition often happens wen
    initial position
  53. Examples of lenition
    • devoicing
    • loss of other features
    • velarization
  54. Types of fortition
    • aspiration
    • proglottalization, prenasalization
    • Affricate formation
    • trilling
    • obstruentization
  55. Three vowel system
    i, a, u
  56. Rising diphthongs
    end in a vowel
  57. falling diphthongs
    end in an approximate
  58. Plotting vowel strategies
    Occuring in an open stressed syllable, nothing special in the environment
  59. Types of epenthetic consonants
    transitional stops, intrustive stops, hiatus avoidance
  60. Haitus
    When two heterosyllabic vowels are juxtaposed
  61. Anticipatory palatalization is the same as
    consonant prevocalization
  62. Central prevowel
  63. Average pitch for men
    120 Hz
  64. Average pitch for women
    210 Hz
  65. Functions of intonation
    • Organization of information
    • Realization of communicative functions
    • Expression of attitude
    • Syntactic structure
    • Indication of textual structure
    • Identification of speech styles
  66. Difference between intonation melodies and lexical tone melodies
    Intonation tone melodies are distriuted over an entire phrase
  67. Why are tones autosegmental
    They can be manipulated independently of consonants and vowels
  68. Monosyllabic roots for demonstration of tonal melodies...
    ...brings greatest number of complications
  69. Sorting strategies for tone
    • Morphological complexity
    • Number of TBUs
    • Prosodic pattern
    • Noun classes
    • Variety of contexts
    • Loanwords
  70. What provides pitch for a toneless TBU?
    Default tone
  71. Expressions of stress
    • Higher amplitude
    • Lengthening of syllable nucleus
    • Lengthening of consonant that follows stress
    • Variation on sound
    • Lack of variation on sound
    • Higher pitch
  72. Two domains of stress
    Word and root