Microbiology Final Exam Practice Tests

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astoddard
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305848
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Microbiology Final Exam Practice Tests
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2015-07-29 20:11:16
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Practice Tests
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  1. Anti-body Structure
    Found above the hinge region
    Fab region
  2. Anti-body Structure
    Found below he hinge region
    Fc region
  3. Anti-body Structure
    made of two domains
    Light chain
  4. Anti-body Structure
    made of four domains
    Heavy chain
  5. Anti-body Structure
    different for every antibody
    variable region
  6. Anti-body Structure
    the same for every antibody of the same class
    constant region
  7. Anti-body Structure
    holds the heavy chain to the light chain
    disulfide bridge
  8. Anti-body Structure
    connects the Fab region to the Fc region
    hinge region
  9. Which of the following can cross the placenta
    1. IgM
    2. IgA
    3. IgG
    4. IgD
    • 1. IgM
    • 2. IgA
    • 3. IgG
    • 4. IgD
  10. Which of the following is held together by a J chain?
    1. IgE
    2. IgG
    3. IgD
    4. IgM
    • 1. IgE
    • 2. IgG
    • 3. IgD
    • 4. IgM
  11. Which of the following is found attached to basophils?
    1. IgM
    2. IgG
    3. IgD
    4. IgE
    • 1. IgM
    • 2. IgG
    • 3. IgD
    • 4. IgE
  12. Place the following in the correct order from youngest to oldest:
    naïve lymphocytes, activated lymphocytes, effector lymphocytes, immature lymphocytes, and memory lymphocytes
    • 1. immature lymphocytes
    • 2. naïve lymphocytes
    • 3. activated lymphocytes
    • 4. effector lymphocytes
    • 5. memory lymphocytes
  13. What is the major difference between the T cell receptor and the B cell receptor?
    T cell receptors only recognize free floating antigen.
  14. Immediately after encountering antigen and binding to it, what does a B cell do?
    engulfs the antigen (phagocytosis)
  15. after phagocytosis, then the B cell displays the antigen on its ______________ molecules.
    MHC II
  16. What specific type of T cell checks the antigen being displayed by the B cell?
    T helper 2
  17. If the T cell recognizes the antigen being displayed by the B cell, what does it (the T cell) do?
    releases cytokines that activate the B cell
  18. If the T cell does not recognize the antigen being displayed by the B cell, what happens to the B cell?
    becomes anergic or unresponsive -will not respond to future antigens. (it is turned off)
  19. Assuming the B cell is allowed to make antibody, what is the first class of antibody made to a primary infection?
    IgM
  20. What type of MHC molecule do cytotoxic T cells interact with?
    MHC class I
  21. If the cytotoxic T cell recognizes the material displayed by the MHC molecule as foreign, what two molecules does the cytotoxic T cell release?
    perforin and protease
  22. What happens to the infected cell as a result of the molecules perforin and protease being released?
    apoptosis or cell death
  23. What happens to the cell if the material displayed by the MHC molecule is NOT foreign?
    nothing, the cell will live
  24. What type of MHC molecule do T helper cells interact with?
    MHC II
  25. What is an activated macrophage?
    has a higher oxidative burst-they make more chemicals and destructive molecules then a "regular, nonactivated" macrophage does
  26. How does a "regular" macrophage become an activated macrophage?
    macrophage displays antigen on its MHC II molecule and it is recognized by a T helper 1. T helper 1 releases cytokines that activate the macrophage.
  27. What type of cell is responsible for activating T cells?
    dendritic cells
  28. Which of the following is not a function of antibodies?
    1. kills the antigen
    2. improves phagocytosis
    3. clumps the antigen together
    • 1. kills the antigen
    • 2. improves phagocytosis
    • 3. clumps the antigen together
  29. Two organisms live in close association; one benefits and the other is unaffected.
    commensalism
  30. two organisms live in close association, one benefits the other is harmed.
    parasitism
  31. tow organisms living in close association.
    symbiosis
  32. has the ability to cause disease.
    pathogenic
  33. The microorganisms that are regularly found in or on the body, yet do no apparent harm are called the ________________.
    Normal flora
  34. Describe the molecular postulates and their function.
    • Molecular postulates are a way to determine which organism causes a particular disease.
    • 1. The virulence factor gene must be present in virulent strains and absent in avirulent ones.
    • 2. If virulence factor gene is given to avirulent strains, they should become virulent.
    • 3. Virulence factor gene must be expressed during infection.
    • 4. Antibodies to the virulence factor should be protective.
  35. C5a peptidase

    is a virulence factor

    is produced by the hos cell in response to infection

    is a molecule promoting chemotaxis

    is a virulence factor and is molecule promoting chemotaxis
    • is a virulence factor
    • is produced by the hos cell in response to infection

    is a molecule promoting chemotaxis

    is a virulence factor and is molecule promoting chemotaxis
  36. Binds to the outside of MHC and the T cell receptor. Causes a massive release of cytokines which lead to shock.
    Superantigens
  37. secreted to the outside of the bacteria to cause specific damage to the host.
    exotoxin
  38. exotoxin that damages the nervous system.
    neurotoxin
  39. superantigen made by some Staphylococcus aureus.
    TSST-1
  40. used by bacteria to bind antibodies up side down. This prevents the antibodies from helping macrophages do phagocytosis.
    Fc receptors
  41. Microorganism has the ability to change or modify its outer surface molecules.
    antigenic variation
  42. LPS, the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria, causes septic shock if it is free in the blood stream.
    endotoxin
  43. agglutinated antigen/antibody molecules settle in the joints or the kidney, where they cause inflammation and possibly damage.
    antigen antibody complexes
  44. Walking pneumonia is called walking pneumonia because:
    there is a long incubation period during which infected individual has no symptoms but is contagious
  45. Which of the following requires prolonged close contact with an infected individual for the disease causing organism to be transmitted to a new host?

    Legionella pneumophila
    Mycoplasma pneumonia
    Klebsiella pneumonia
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    All of the choices may be transmitted person to person
    • Legionella pneumophila
    • Mycoplasma pneumonia
    • Klebsiella pneumonia
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • All of the choices may be transmitted person to person
  46. Which of the following is an infection of the moist surfaces of the eye?

    conjunctivitis
    epiglottitis
    rhinitis
    Dacryocystis
    • conjunctivitis
    • epiglottitis
    • rhinitis
    • Dacryocystis
  47. Briefly describe the mucociliary escalator. What is its function?
    The mucociliary escalator are the ciliated cells of the respiratory tract. The cilia are used to push mucus up from the lower respiratory tract to the throat to be swallowed. This allows us to replace old mucus with new.
  48. Organisms that cause pneumonia typically have which virulence factor in common?

    a capsule
    superantigens
    Fc receptors
    • a capsule
    • superantigens
    • Fc receptors
  49. Which organism below is an intracellular parasite of amoeba living in water:

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Klebsiella pneumonia
    Bordetella pertussis
    Legionella pneumophila
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Klebsiella pneumonia
    • Bordetella pertussis
    • Legionella pneumophila
  50. _____________ is the molecule that allows the Influenza virus to attach to its host cells.
    hemagglutinin
  51. Contrast antigenic shift and antigenic drift in the influenza virus.
    • Antigenic drift is due to small random mutations in the hemagluttinin gene. This causes the type of flu virus circulating this year to be slightly different from the type of flu virus that circulated last year (season flu differences).
    • Antigenic shift is due to genome exchange, when two different viruses in one host cell swap pieces of their segmented genome. This causes massive changes to the viral nucleic acid and can cause panemic outbreaks of flu.
  52. Which disease causes skin to take on a dusky color due to low oxygen?

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus
    Hantavirus Pulmonary syndrome
    Diphtheria
    • Respiratory Syncytial Virus
    • Hantavirus Pulmonary syndrome
    • Diphtheria
  53. Which molecule does streptococcus use to bind antibodies backwards?

    Streptolysin O
    Streptolysin S
    Protein G
    Protein F
    M Protein
    • Streptolysin O
    • Streptolysin S
    • Protein G
    • Protein F
    • M Protein
  54. Briefly describe the causative agent, symptoms, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of Hanta virus.
    Hanta virus is caused by Sin Nombre virus (a.k.a. hanta virus). The symptoms include: fever, muscle aches, vomiting and fluid accumulation in the lungs. Pathogenesis of this disease includes the respiratory route of transmission from contact with mouse droppings. There is no person to person respiratory transmission. The virus causes inflammatory response in capillaries and causes fluid to accumulate in the lungs. This causes blood pressure changes and suffication. There is no vaccine. Treatment is supportive.

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