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eg. anerobic - without air
- 1. Flagellum
- 2. Microvilli
- 3. Centrioles
- 4. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
- 5. Secretory Vesicle
- 6. Nucleus
- 7. Nuclear Pore
- 8. Golgi complex
- 9. Microfilament
- 1. Cilia
- 2. Mitochondrion
- 3. Lysosome
- 4. Plasma membrane
- 5. Nuclear envelope
- 6. Chromatin
- 7. Nucleolus
- 8. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
- 9. Ribosome
What is the function of the flagellum?
Moves the cell.
Beats to move the sperm cell towards the egg.
What is the function of the microvilli?
Increase surface area for absorption and secretion.
What is the function of the centrioles?
Help separate duplicated chromosomes during mitosis.
What is the function of the SER?
Synthesise lipids (eg. steroid hormones - testosterone & oestrogen)
What is the function of the secretory vesicle?
Transport secretory products to the cell membrane and release them from the cell, or remain in the cytoplasm as lysosomes.
What is the function of the nucleus?
Control centre - controls what cellular events happen and when they happen.
What is the function of the golgi complex?
Receive proteins and lipids from RER and SER and packages them up into a secretory vesicles.
What is the function of the cilia?
Tiny hair-like extensions that beat and move mucus out of airways or egg through fallopian tubes.
What is the function of the mitochondria?
Power house of the cell. Traps energy in the Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), uses energy to do cell work. Muscle cells have a lot of mitochondria.
What is the function of the plasma membrane?
- Controls what enters and leaves the cell.
- Shape and protection.
- Communication and responding to the environment.
What is the function of the nuclear membrane?
Controls what enters and leaves the nucleus.
What is the function of the chromatin?
Chromosomes in relaxed form.
What is the function of the nuclear pores?
Messenger RNA (mRNA) enter and leave nucleus through pores.
What is the function of the nucleolus?
1 - 4. Synthesise a part of the ribosomes.
What is the function of the RER?
Synthesises proteins. eg. pancreatic cells secrete insulin.
What is the function of the ribosome?
- Produce proteins.
- Free ribosomes - intracellular function.
- Attached to RER - extracellular function
What is the function of the lysosomes?
contain digestive enzymes. Digest unwanted materials. eg bacteria & other debris.
What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
- Microfilaments - provide structure and support
- Microtubules - hollow, support, intracellular transport, cell division, formation of microvilli, cilia and flagella.
What is the cell membrane?
Aka plasma membrane.
- 1. Phospholipid bilayer
- 2. Protein transporter
- 3. Cholesterol
- 4. Carbohydrate molecule
- 5. Phospholipid polar head (hydrophilic)
- 6. Phospholipid fatty aid tail (hydrophobic)
What is the role of cholesterol in the cell?
Packer in cell membrane - gives cell its shape.
What is a glycoprotein?
A carbohydrate attached to a protein.
What is a passive transport process?
Transport relies on pressure, concentration differences and kinetic energy. moves down the concentration gradient. No ATP is used.
Simple diffusion, osmosis, filtration and facilitated diffusion.
What is an active transport process?
Active transport requires the use of ATP and can move substances through protein pumps against the concentration gradient.
Bulk transport process includes phagocytosis, pinocytosis, endocytosis and exocytosis and also requires ATP
Outline simple diffusion.
Particles move from an area of their own high concentration to an area of their own low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
Particles move down the pressure gradient.
What increases the rate of diffusion?
- Increased temperature.
- Concentration difference is greater.
- Smaller particles.
What particles can diffuse through the phospholipid bilayer?
- Carbon dioxide
- Fat soluble vitamins (D,E,K,A also B,C)
Water passing through a semipermeable membrane from an area of high concentration of water to an area of low concentration of water.
Relative concentration of solutes.
Two solutions that have the same concentration of water and solutes.
High concentration of solutes, therefore a low concentration of water.
What happens to the volume of a RBC if it was placed in to a hypertonic solution.
The water concentration would be higher inside the cell than in the solution, so the water inside the cell would transfer out of the cell through osmosis, therefore reducing the volume of the RBC.
Known as crenation.
Low concentration of solutes, therefore a high concentration of water.
What happens to the volume of a RBC if it was placed into a hypotonic solution?
The water concentration would be lower inside the cell than in the solution, so the water outside the cell would be transferred into the cell through osmosis, therefore increasing the volume of the RBC. Known as haemolysis.
Outline facilitated diffusion
The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration with the aid of protein transporters.
What is an example of a particle that is transported by facilitated diffusion?
Insulin opens a "gate" in the protein transporter to speed up the rate at which glucose is taken into the cell.
Driven by water pressure. Water, and dissolved substances are pushed through the membrane from an area of high pressure to area of low pressure. eg. kidneys.
Give an example of a membrane pump that requires ATP.
Sodium/potassium pump. Uses ATP to get sodium ions into the cell and potassium ions out of the cell. It can do this against the pressure gradient.
Name the two bulk transport processes.
- - Phagocytosis
- - Pinocytosis
What is endocytosis?
- A bulk transport process.
- The intake of materials in bulk into the cell.
Endocytosis bulk transport
Cell extends its membrane around the particle it is going to ingest. Once surrounded by membrane, particle is taken into the cell in the form of a vesicle.
Endocytosis bulk transport
The cell forms a pocket for fluid to flow into. a vesicle is then formed. (pinocytotic vesicle)
Bulk transport process
Removal of substances from the cell into extracellular fluid.
A vesicle made by the Golgi body fuses with cell membrane and the contents are expelled.
- 1. Chromatin
- 2. Nucleolus
- 3. Nuclear envelope
- 4. Nuclear pore
- 5. Nucleus
- 1. Nucleus
- 2. Nuclear pore
- 3. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
- 4. Transport vesicles
- 5. Golgi apparatus
- 6. Secretory vesicles
Describe organic compounds.
What are the organic compounds in the human body?
- Always contain carbon
- Held together by strong chemical bonds
- Complex structures
- Can be made by living organisms
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids (DNA & RNA)
- A. Carbohydrate
- B. Protein
- C. Lipid
- D. Nucleic acid
- A. Monosaccharide - Simple sugars
- B. Disaccharide - Simple sugars
- C. Polysaccharide - Complex sugars and starches
- Come from plants
- Made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
- Sugars and starches.
- Names often end in -ose.
- Three main groups:
- - Monosaccharides
- - Disaccharides
- - Polysaccharides
- One unit sugar.
- Building blocks of more complex sugars and starches.
- Pentoses & Hexoses
- 5 carbon sugars - pentagon shape
- - Deoxyribose (in DNA)
- - Ribose (in RNA)
- 6 carbon sugars - hexagon shape
- - Glucose
- - Fructose
- - Galactose (component of lactose)
Describe disaccharides. How many are there? What are their names?
- Two unit sugar.
- Must be digested to monosaccharides before they can be absorbed into blood stream.
- Maltose = Glucose + Glucose
- Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose
- Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
Where are the three disaccharides found?
- Maltose - fruits and barley
- Fructose - table sugar and fruits
- Lactose - milk
What enzyme digests sucrose and what are the products?
Sucrase = Glucose + Fructose
What enzyme digests lactose and what are the products?
lactase = glucose + galactose
What enzyme digests maltose and what are the products?
maltase = glucose + glucose
What organ can convert galactose and fructose to glucose?
Outline polysaccharides and name them.
- Very large molecules, hundreds of glucose molecules linked together.
- Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose
- Made by plants to store energy.
- Two step digestion process.
Name the enzymes, intermediate and final products of starch digestion.
Starch -> amylase -> maltose -> maltase -> glucose
What is an enzyme?
- A Protein.
- Speed up chemical reactions but not used up in reaction.
- Specific for particular reactions.
- Has an optimum temperature and pH (salt concentration).
- End in -ase
What is a substrate?
Something an enzyme works on, eg. sucrose, lactose, maltose
What is Cytoplasm?
The part of the cell outside of the nucleus.
What is cytosol?
the fluid portion of cytoplasm.
What are chromosomes?
Packages of DNA. Humans have 46 chromosomes. (23 pairs)
What kind of organic compound is ribose?
Monosaccharide - pentose sugar
What kind of organic compound is sucrose?
Carbohydrate - disaccharide - glucose + fructose
What is glycogen?
- Made by animals to store energy - we turn extra glucose into glycogen in the liver and muscles and store it. Glycogen can then be broken down into glucose and used for energy.
If glucose is taken up by adipose tissue it is converted to fats (triglycerides)
What is cellulose?
- Made by plant cells.
- We are unable to digest it.
What is the basic building bloc of protein?
How many different amino acids are there?
What is a protein?
A long (more than 50) chain of amino acids. twisted into complex shapes. shape relates to it's function.
Made of C, H, O and N atoms.
Name the enzymes, intermediate and final product of protein digestion.
Protein -> proteases -> peptides -> peptidase -> amino acids
Protein synthesis occurs in the _______
6 functions of proteins.
- Hormones - insulin
- Antibodies - synthesised by WBC. Immunity.
- Haemoglobin - Transport protein in RBC for O
- Contractile protein - Actin and myosin in muscle
- Structural protein - Keratin, elastin, collagen
- Enzymes - speed up chemical reaction -ase
What are lipids? Name the three Lipids.
- Made of C, H and O. Some have phosphorus and some have nitrogen.
What are triglycerides? Outline structure.
- A lipid made up only of C, H and O atoms.
- Have a "backbone" of a glycerol molecule to which three arms fatty acids are attached.
*There are many different fatty acids therefore many different triglycerides
What is the word equation for the digestion of Triglycerides?
Triglyceride -> Lipase -> monoglyceride + 2 x fatty acids.
* the products are absorbed through intestine, reassembled into different triglycerides and carried to the cells of the body in the blood and lymph.
What are the functions of triglycerides?
- Protection from knocks
- Insulation from hot and cold
- Energy storage and source
What is a phospholipid? outline the structure
- Made up of C, H, O and Phosphorus. Many contain Nitrogen.
- Two fatty acids attached to the glycerol molecule, and a phosphorus "head"
- Polar (phospho) head - hydrophilic
- Non-polar (fatty) tail - hydrophobic
What are the functions of phospholipids?
Form the cell membrane
What are steroids?
- Lipids made up of C, H and O. C atoms are arranged in rings.
- Made from cholesterol (a steroid we get from food or can be synthesised by the liver)
- Include sex hormones, bile salts and vitamin D
What are the functions of steroids?
- Bile salts are needed for absorption of dietary lipids
- Vitamin D helps to regulate calcium levels in the body
- Steroid hormones include aldosterone, oestrogen and testosterone. They are similar in structure to cholesterol.
What is ribose and how does the body use it?
A carbohydrate, monosaccharide, pentose sugar, found in ribonucleic acid (RNA)
What is deoxyribose and how does the body use it?
A carbohydrate, monosaccharide, pentose sugar, found in deoxyriboneucleic acid. (DNA)
What are the monosaccharides that join to form disaccharides?
glucose, fructose and galactose
What do the liver and muscle store glucose as?
What is a nucleic acid?
- A chain of nucleotides.
- Made up of C, H, O, N and P.
The order of nucleotides codes for different information.
- Two types:
- - Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
- - Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
A strand of DNA is made of nucleotides joined together by phosphate bonds.
Each nucleotide is made up of what?
- a phosphate
- a pentose sugar
- a base
Draw and label the structure of a nucleotide.
What are the four nucleotide bases found in DNA?
What are the nucleotide base pairs
- Adenine - Thymine
- Cytosine - Guanine
The chemical bond between bases are relatively weak and can be broken or unzipped easily.
Outline the structure of RNA
Similar to DNA - Phosphate, pentose sugar (ribose) and base, only one strand, thymine replaced by uracil.
What is the three types of RNA?
- messenger RNA
- transfer RNA
- ribosomal RNA
Outline the process of DNA duplication
- 1 Enzymes break the hydrogen bonds between the bases
- 2 Free DNA nucleotides base-pair with exposed bases along each of the two strands of the original DNA molecule
- 3 A new 'backbone' is formed from phosphate and the sugar deoxyribose
What is transcription? Where does it occur?
- Step one of protein synthesis.
- Occurs in the nucleus.
- Info on one strand of DNA is copied (transcribed) to make mRNA (messenger).
*not exact copy, bases are paired with complementary RNA nucleotides. The sequence of bases specifies the sequence of amino acids in the protein.
What is translation? Where does it occur?
- Step two of protein synthesis.
- Occurs in the cytoplasm and ribosome.
- Sets of three bases on mRNA is called a codon and represents the code for an amino acid.
- tRNA (transfer) joins to specific amino acid in cytoplasm.
- The steps:
- 1) mRNA joins to ribosome
- 2) two tRNA molecules come to ribosome and base-pair with the correct codons on mRNA
- 3) the two amino acids join by forming a peptide bond, then first tRNA detaches from ribosome.
- 4) Ribosome moves along mRNA allowing next tRNA to base-pair
- 5) When protein complete, ribosome detaches itself from mRNA.
What is a codon?
Sets of three bases on mRNA and represents the code for an amino acid.
Anticodon is three bases on tRNA and determines the amino acid that will be carried
What is protein synthesis?
Cells link amino acids together to form proteins
all the biochemical reactions that occur in a cell within an organism, including synthetic and decomposition.
- Chemical reactions that combine small molecules into larger ones. Requires energy.
- eg protein synthesis
- Chemical reactions that breakdown large/complex molecules into simple ones. Releases energy.
- eg. Cellular respiration
Energy from food combines with what to make cell energy
Energy + ADP (adenine diphosphate) + P <=> ATP (adenine triphosphate)
What is cellular respiration?
- Catabolic process.
- Chemical reaction that provides energy for a cell.
- needed for DNA duplication, protein synthesis, Active cell transport process, etc
Outline aerobic respiration.
- Glycolysis. Glucose molecule enters cell through facilitated diffusion. Splits in half to produce 2 ATP. Pyruvic acid is formed.
- Pyruvic acid enters mitochondrion and oxygen is present.
- Citric acid cycle produces 2 ATP + CO2 + heat
- Electron transport chain produces 32 ATP + H2O + heat
- End products:
- 36 ATP + H2O + CO2 + heat
What organelles are associated with aerobic respiration?
Outline anaerobic respiration
- No oxygen present
- Glycolysis. Glucose molecule enters cell through facilitated diffusion. Splits in half to produce 2 ATP. Pyruvic acid is formed.
- Pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid.
- Lactic acid enters the bloodstream where is it stored by the liver and later converted back to pyruvic acid when oxygen becomes available.
Occurs in cytoplasm
End product: 2 ATP