the normal physiological process in the body that deals with destruction of cells in the body. It maintains homeostasis or normal functioning by protein degradation and turnover of the destroyed cell organelles for new cell formation.
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.
The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.
The cellular secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
The covalent addition of carbohydrates (usually oligosaccharides) to proteins in the ER and Golgi apparatus.
A membrane-enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
the ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
Signal Recognition Particle (SRP)
a multimeric protein, which along with its conjugate receptor (SR), is involved in targeting secretory proteins to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) membrane in eukaryotes