GI Tract-Pharm-Exam 3

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GI Tract-Pharm-Exam 3
2015-07-31 11:27:09
Exam 3
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  1. Where does peptic ulcer disease occur?
    Areas exposed to HCL acid and pepsin
  2. What is GERD
    gastro-esophageal reflux disease
  3. What are causes of ulcers?
    • stres
    • medications
    • H. Pylori
    • Smoking
  4. Cell Destruction:
    • Gastric acid: acetylcholine, histamine II
    • Pepsin (pH < 3)
    • H. Pylori
  5. What protects the cells?
    • mucus
    • dilution of HCL acid
    • tight esophageal sphincter
    • cytoprotective prostaglandins
    • alkalizations
  6. What are the different types of Anti-Ulcer Meds?
    • Antacids
    • Ulcer adherent
    • Histamine 2 Receptor Blockers
    • Proton Pump Inhibitors
    • H. Pylori Agents
  7. What is the prototype for Antacids?
    Aluminum and Magnesium: Maalox, Mylanta, Gelusel, Di-Gell
  8. When do you give antacids?
    • 1hr after meals
    • 2hrs after other meds
  9. What is the prototype for ulcer adherent?
    Sucralafate (Carafate)
  10. What are the ADE for sucralafate (carafate)
    • N
    • Constipation
    • metallic taste
    • dry mouth
  11. What is an issue with having a patient take sucralafate (carafate)?
    • difficult schedule to keep (1 hr after/before bed, 4-8 weeks)
    • Pt non-compliance
  12. What is the prototype for Histamine 2 Receptor Blocking Agents?
    Cimetidine (Tagamet)
  13. What does H2 cause?
    Increased gastric acid production
  14. What is the MoA of Cimetidine (Tagamet)?
    H2 receptor blocker to inhibit gastric acid production
  15. When can you give Cimetidine (Tagamet)?
    • any time W/O regard to meals
    • 2 hrs apart from antacids
  16. What are some ADE of cimetidine (Tagamet)
    • Headache
    • dizziness
    • N/D
  17. How long can you take antacids?
    • a few weeks
    • NOT a few years
  18. What is the prototype for Proton Pump Inhibitors? (PPI)
    Omeprazole (Prilosex)
  19. What are the common ADE of Omeprazole (Prilosec)
    • N/D
    • Headache
  20. What is the MoA of Omeprazole (Prilosec)?
    prevent or stop the "pumping" or release of gastric acid
  21. What are long term ADE for Omeprazole (Prilosec)
    • increased risk for bone loss and C.Diff
    • Decreased absorption of nutrients and meds
  22. Does Sucralfate (Carafate) change pH in stomach?
  23. How is sucralfate (Carafate) excreted?
    with fecal matter
  24. What are some nursing assessments for Histamine 2 receptors blocking agents?
    • renal function
    • liver function
    • other medication interferance (there's alot)
    • allergies
    • pregnancy, lactating
  25. How long is it recommended to take Omeprazole (Prilosec)
    8-12 weeks
  26. What is a prevpak treating?
    Hy. Pylori agents
  27. What is in the prevak?
    • 1 lansoprazel (Prevacid)
    • 2 amoxicillin
    • 1 (Clarithromycin (Biaxin))
  28. Define Laxative
    mild effects w the formation of soft stool
  29. Define Cathartic (GI Tract)
    strong effect w/ elimination of liquid or semi-liquid stool
  30. What is an example of bulk forming laxative and cathartic?
    • Metamucil
    • Fibercon
  31. What is the action of bulk forming laxatives and cathartics
    adds bulk to increase peristalsis
  32. What is the action of Surfactant (stool softeners)
    softens stool
  33. What is the action of Saline cathartic?
    Increases osmotic peristalsis
  34. What is the action of irritant or stimulant cathartics?
    irritates the GI mucosa > increases peristalsis
  35. What is the action of lubricant laxatives?
    lubricates intestines
  36. What are examples of Saline Cathartic?
    • milk of magnesia
    • fleets
    • Golytely
  37. What are contraindicatiosn for laxatives and cathartics
    • Abd pain of unknown origin
    • Bowel Perforation
    • GI obstruction
  38. Name some causes of Diarrhea
    • excessive use of laxatives
    • intestinal infection
    • highly spice foods
    • lack of digestive enzymes
    • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • drug therapy
    • Intestinal Cancer
  39. What are nonspecific therapies for Diarrheals?
    • Opiate derivatives
    • Misc
  40. What are some types of opiate derivatives for nonspecific therapy?
    • Lomotil
    • Imodium
  41. What are some misc diarrheals for nonspecific therapy
  42. When is specific therapy for diarrheals used?
    Means that there's a specific problem that has to be taken care of
  43. What are 2 types of specific therapy for anti-diarrheals?
    • Antibiotics
    • Digestive Enzymes
  44. What should you do prior to giving an anti-emetic?
    assess for bowel sounds
  45. What are the 4 types of anti-emetics?
    • Phenothiazines
    • Antihistamines
    • Serotonin Receptor Antagonist
    • Benzodiazepines