Nervous System Organization

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Author:
mnm2186
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30591
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Nervous System Organization
Updated:
2010-08-20 13:40:49
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Anatomy
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Exam 2
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  1. Development of nervous system:
    Gastrulation
    • Formation of 3 germ layers
    • 1. Ectoderm (epidermis / neural tissue)

    2. Mesoderm (muscle / CT)

    3. Endoderm (epithelium of GI & resp. tracts)
  2. Neural plate formation
    • Beginning of 3rd week
    • notochord induces overlying ectoderm to form neural plate

    • End of 3rd week
    • lateral edges of neural plate form neural folds
    • (depressed mid-region = neural groove)
  3. What is neurulation?
    Neural tube formation by fusion of neural folds (rostro-caudal direction)

    Rostral neuropore (cranial opening) & caudal neuropore are open to amniotic fluid
  4. When does closure of neuropores occur?
    Coincides with establishment of blood supply to the neural tube
  5. Where is the spinal cord derived from?
    neural tube (caudal to 4th pair of somites)
  6. What does the alar plate become?
    • Dorsal horn of spinal cord
    • Sensory (afferent)
  7. What does the basal plate become?
    • Ventral horn of spinal cord
    • Motor (efferent)
  8. 3 zones of spinal cord development
    Ventricular zone: cell proliferation into neurons / macroglia

    • Intermediate zone: neurons differentiate / form axons and dendrites
    • (a.k.a mantle layer)

    Marginal zone: edge of cord where longitudinal axon fasicles grow
  9. Where is the brain derived from?
    neural tube (rostral to 4th pair of somites)
  10. Outline brain development from primary vesicles
    • Forebrain - Prosencephalon
    • - Telencephalon
    • - Diencephalon

    • Midbrain - Mesencephalon
    • - Mesencephalon

    • Hindbrain - Rhombencephalon
    • - Metencephalon
    • - Myelencephalon
  11. Differential growth in brain development
    Causes folding / bending of developing brain

    • 3 main flexures (folds):
    • - midbrain flexure
    • - pontine flexure
    • - cervical flexure
  12. CNS Gray Matter
    • Neuron cell bodies in nuclei
    • Astrocytes
    • Microglia
    • Some oligodendroglia
  13. CNS White Matter
    • Myelinated axons
    • (myelin formed by oligodendroglia)
  14. Where is the PNS derived from?
    Neural crest
  15. Peripheral nerve components
    Myelinated axons (covered by endoneurium)

    Fascicles (covered by perineurium)

    Nerves (covered by epineurium)
  16. Where are peripheral ganglia of the ANS derived from?
    Neural crest
  17. Purpose of ANS
    Visceral innervation
  18. Components of ANS
    • 3 Components
    • - sympathetic
    • - parasympathetic
    • - enteric
  19. Neuron systems in ANS
    • Preganglionic neuron
    • - gray matter of CNS

    • Postganglionic neuron
    • - sympathetic = autonomic ganglia
    • - parasympathetic = visceral wall / ganglia close to organ
  20. Origins of parasympathetic fibers
    • CN III, VII, IX, X
    • Spinal nerves C1 - S2/S4
  21. Origins of sympathetic fibers
    Spinal nerves T1 - L2
  22. Sympathetic Preganglionic Neurons
    Neurons in the spinal cord lateral horn from T1-L2 or 3

    • Some synapse in paravertebral ganglia
    • Others travel via splanchnic nerves to prevertebral ganglia

    cholinergic
  23. Sympathetic Postganglionic Neurons
    Neurons in paravertebral (sympathetic chain) or some prevertebral (collateral) ganglia

    adrenergic (except to eccrine sweat glands = cholinergic)
  24. Parasympathetic Preganglionic Neurons
    Neurons in brainstem nuclei or sacral spinal cord

    Cholinergic
  25. Parasympathetic Postganglionic Neurons
    Neurons in wall of viscera

    Cholinergic

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