Cell Biology Day 15
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are much thinner than microtubules. They consist of a double chain of polymers of actin, a globular protein. Microfilaments contribute to cell shape but tend to be less rigid than microtubules and can be thought of as “tension-bearing” elements.
are the largest of the cytoskeleton cables. They are hollow cylinders made up of many subunits of a globular protein called tubulin.
a narrow thread of cytoplasm that passes through the cell walls of adjacent plant cells and allows communication between them.
a protein molecule usually found embedded within the plasma membrane surface of a cell that receives chemical signals from outside the cell
A set of chemical reactions in a cell that occurs when a molecule, such as a hormone, attaches to a receptor on the cell membrane. The pathway is actually a cascade of biochemical reactions inside the cell that eventually reach the target molecule or reaction.
the precursors are activated triphosphates (dATP, dCTP, dGTP, dTTP): these provide the free energy required for polymerization.
Term used to describe how the two strands of DNA in a double helix run in opposite directions (whilst one is 5’ to 3’, the other is 3’ to 5’).
- Discontinuous synthesis
- Synthesis of DNA that occurs in short fragments on the lagging strand. The fragments are joined together by DNA ligase.
In the final step, the pieces of DNA are joined together by an enzyme called DNA ligase.
DNA synthesis is catalysed by enzymes called DNA polymerases
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