Cell Biology Day 15

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Cell Biology Day 15
2015-08-01 16:50:54
Day 15 of cell biology glossary
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  1. microfilaments
    are much thinner than microtubules. They consist of a double chain of polymers of actin, a globular protein. Microfilaments contribute to cell shape but tend to be less rigid than microtubules and can be thought of as “tension-bearing” elements.
  2. microtubules
    are the largest of the cytoskeleton cables. They are hollow cylinders made up of many subunits of a globular protein called tubulin.
  3. Plasmodesmata
    a narrow thread of cytoplasm that passes through the cell walls of adjacent plant cells and allows communication between them.
  4. Receptor
    a protein molecule usually found embedded within the plasma membrane surface of a cell that receives chemical signals from outside the cell
  5. signal transduction
    A set of chemical reactions in a cell that occurs when a molecule, such as a hormone, attaches to a receptor on the cell membrane. The pathway is actually a cascade of biochemical reactions inside the cell that eventually reach the target molecule or reaction.
  6. activated triphosphates
    the precursors are activated triphosphates (dATP, dCTP, dGTP, dTTP): these provide the free energy required for polymerization.
  7. antiparallel strands
    Term used to describe how the two strands of DNA in a double helix run in opposite directions (whilst one is 5’ to 3’, the other is 3’ to 5’).
  8. Discontinuous synthesis
    Synthesis of DNA that occurs in short fragments on the lagging strand. The fragments are joined together by DNA ligase.
  9. DNA ligase
    In the final step, the pieces of DNA are joined together by an enzyme called DNA ligase.
  10. DNA polymerase
    DNA synthesis is catalysed by enzymes called DNA polymerases