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2015-08-01 19:32:26
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  1. What does the CNS consist of?
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  2. Why is the brain grey?
    lacks myelin
  3. What/where is the broca?
    • motor speech area of brain
    • anterior
  4. What/Where is the wernikes?
    • speech comprehension
    • posterior
  5. What does the precentral gyrus control?
    Voluntary movement
  6. What does the postcentral gyrus control?
  7. What is the Frontal lobe responsible for?
    • personality
    • behavior
    • emotion
    • intellectual function
  8. What is the Occipital lobe responsible for?
    Vision reception
  9. What is the Temporal lobe responsible for?
    Primary Auditory Reception
  10. What is the basal ganglia responsible for?
    • automatic associated movements
    • like arms swinging while walking
  11. What is the thalamus responsible for?
    sensory pathways on way to cortex
  12. What is the cerebellum responsible for?
    voluntary movements
  13. What makes up the brain stem?
    • Mid Brain
    • Pons
    • Medulla
  14. What is the hypothalamus?
    The body's regulator
  15. What side of the body does the Left cerebral cortex control?
    • Right side of body
    • The cerebral cortex controls the opposite side of the body
  16. What is the corticospinal pathway and what is the extraparametal tract?
    • Cortex to spinal column
    • Everything else
  17. What is the corticospinal tract responsible for?
    voluntary movements (skilled)
  18. What is extraparametal tract responsible for?
    • gross muscle movements
    • ex. walking
  19. What is the Cerebellar System responsible for?
    posture, movement, equillibrium
  20. What does the spinothalmatic sense?
    • pain
    • temp
    • crude/light touch
  21. What does the dorsal column sense?
    • position, vibration, localized touch
    • proprioception, vibratory, graphesthesia/sterogenosis
  22. Why is pain in the heart, spleen and liver always referred?
    They have no spot in brain for pain
  23. Where are the Upper Motor Neurons located?
    the CNS
  24. Where are the lower motor neurons located?
  25. What are cranial nerves part of? 
    CNS or PNS?
  26. How many spinal nerve pairs are there?
  27. Where are the afferent nerves?
  28. Where are the efferent nerves
    Anterior to the spinal column
  29. What is a dermatome?
    skin that is supplied from a spinal cord segment
  30. What are the 5 things that need to be intact for a reflex?
    • intact afferent nerve
    • functional synapse
    • intact efferent nerve
    • intact neuromuscular junction
    • the muscle
  31. What do afferent nerves do?
    carry sensations from body to brain
  32. What do efferent nerves do?
    carry messages back to body
  33. Describe the function of CN VII
    • Facial
    • Anterior of tongue (taste)
  34. Describe the function of CN IX
    • Glossopharyngeal
    • Posterior tongue (taste)
  35. What spinal nerves innervate the knee?
    L 2,3,4
  36. What spinal nerves innervate the brachioradials?
  37. What spinal nerves innervate the tricep?
    C6 and C7
  38. What are familial tremors relieved by?
    • alcohol
    • Beta Blockers
  39. What is the most important thing about the neuro test to look for?
  40. What are the 7 components of the neuro exam?
    • Mental Status (Speech and Language)
    • CN
    • Motor System
    • Coordination
    • Rhomberg/Gait
    • Reflexes
  41. Define lethargy
    appears drowsy, but is responsive
  42. Describe obtundation
    lethargic, responds slowly, somewhat confused
  43. Describe stupor
    arouses only after painful stimuli
  44. Describe a coma state
  45. What is ptosis? What CN is it associated with?
    • drooping of one eye lid
    • III
  46. What could hesitancies in language be attributed to?
    aphasia from stroke
  47. Define aphasia
    difficulty speaking
  48. What could monotone inflections in language be attributed to?
    • Schizophrenia
    • Major Depression
  49. What is circumlocutions?
    phrases are substituted for words
  50. What are paraphasias?
    words are malformed, wrong or invented
  51. Describe Bell's Palsy
    • whole face is affected
    • Nerve is affected below pons
    • Peripheral problem
  52. Describe a stroke
    • half of face is affected
    • nerve is affected above pons
    • CNS problem
  53. Which is greater?
    Air conduction or Bone conduction
    Air conduction
  54. Which side will the tongue deviate to if there's something wrong with CN XII?
    Towards or away from affected side?
    Towards the affected side
  55. Describe a normal tone
    even resistance to passive stretch
  56. Describe flaccid
    decreased muscle tone
  57. Describe spastic in relation to tone
    • increased tone
    • increased resistance to passive stretch
  58. Describe rigid in relation to tone
    constant state of resistance
  59. Define fasciculation
    rapid continuous twitching of a resting muscle
  60. Describe tic
    normal movement of muscle groups that occurs involuntarily or inappropriately
  61. Define Clonus
    During Achilles Reflex, the foot oscillates
  62. Define cephalocaudal in relation to babies
    babies develop from head to toes
  63. What shape is a baby's spine?
  64. What is lordotic?
    baby's belly is pushed forward as well as lumbar spine
  65. When do women stop growing?
    2 years post menarche
  66. Define the barlow maneuver
    • adduct hip in a baby
    • Positive sign: hip goes out of socket
  67. Define the Ortolani maneuver in infants
    • abduct thighs and push downward
    • Positive sign: you'll hear a "clunk"
  68. Describe a trendelenburg gait
    opposite side of affected hip drops and person walks with one hip higher than the other
  69. Define collateral
    opposite side
  70. Define Genum varum
    When is it normal?
    • Bowlegged
    • Until 2.5 or 3 y/o
  71. Describe Genum Valgum
    When is it normal?
    • knock-kneed
    • until 7 y/o
  72. What are 3 causes of intoeing in an infant?
    • femoral anteversion (from hip)
    • Tibial Tortion
    • Metatarsus adductus
  73. When does the palmar grasp disappear?
  74. When does the placing/stepping reflex disappear?
  75. When does the rooting/sucking reflex disappear?
  76. When does the Moro reflex disappear?
  77. When does the tonic neck reflex disappear?
  78. When does Babinski reflex disappear
    • ~12m
    • when the baby starts walking
  79. When does the plantar reflex disappear?