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What does the CNS consist of?
Brain and Spinal Cord
Why is the brain grey?
What/where is the broca?
- motor speech area of brain
What/Where is the wernikes?
- speech comprehension
What does the precentral gyrus control?
What does the postcentral gyrus control?
What is the Frontal lobe responsible for?
- intellectual function
What is the Occipital lobe responsible for?
What is the Temporal lobe responsible for?
Primary Auditory Reception
What is the basal ganglia responsible for?
- automatic associated movements
- like arms swinging while walking
What is the thalamus responsible for?
sensory pathways on way to cortex
What is the cerebellum responsible for?
What makes up the brain stem?
What is the hypothalamus?
The body's regulator
What side of the body does the Left cerebral cortex control?
- Right side of body
- The cerebral cortex controls the opposite side of the body
What is the corticospinal pathway and what is the extraparametal tract?
- Cortex to spinal column
- Everything else
What is the corticospinal tract responsible for?
voluntary movements (skilled)
What is extraparametal tract responsible for?
- gross muscle movements
- ex. walking
What is the Cerebellar System responsible for?
posture, movement, equillibrium
What does the spinothalmatic sense?
- crude/light touch
What does the dorsal column sense?
- position, vibration, localized touch
- proprioception, vibratory, graphesthesia/sterogenosis
Why is pain in the heart, spleen and liver always referred?
They have no spot in brain for pain
Where are the Upper Motor Neurons located?
Where are the lower motor neurons located?
What are cranial nerves part of?
CNS or PNS?
How many spinal nerve pairs are there?
Where are the afferent nerves?
Where are the efferent nerves
Anterior to the spinal column
What is a dermatome?
skin that is supplied from a spinal cord segment
What are the 5 things that need to be intact for a reflex?
- intact afferent nerve
- functional synapse
- intact efferent nerve
- intact neuromuscular junction
- the muscle
What do afferent nerves do?
carry sensations from body to brain
What do efferent nerves do?
carry messages back to body
Describe the function of CN VII
- Anterior of tongue (taste)
Describe the function of CN IX
- Posterior tongue (taste)
What spinal nerves innervate the knee?
What spinal nerves innervate the brachioradials?
What spinal nerves innervate the tricep?
C6 and C7
What are familial tremors relieved by?
What is the most important thing about the neuro test to look for?
What are the 7 components of the neuro exam?
- Mental Status (Speech and Language)
- Motor System
appears drowsy, but is responsive
lethargic, responds slowly, somewhat confused
arouses only after painful stimuli
Describe a coma state
What is ptosis? What CN is it associated with?
- drooping of one eye lid
What could hesitancies in language be attributed to?
aphasia from stroke
What could monotone inflections in language be attributed to?
- Major Depression
What is circumlocutions?
phrases are substituted for words
What are paraphasias?
words are malformed, wrong or invented
Describe Bell's Palsy
- whole face is affected
- Nerve is affected below pons
- Peripheral problem
Describe a stroke
- half of face is affected
- nerve is affected above pons
- CNS problem
Which is greater?
Air conduction or Bone conduction
Which side will the tongue deviate to if there's something wrong with CN XII?
Towards or away from affected side?
Towards the affected side
Describe a normal tone
even resistance to passive stretch
decreased muscle tone
Describe spastic in relation to tone
- increased tone
- increased resistance to passive stretch
Describe rigid in relation to tone
constant state of resistance
rapid continuous twitching of a resting muscle
normal movement of muscle groups that occurs involuntarily or inappropriately
During Achilles Reflex, the foot oscillates
Define cephalocaudal in relation to babies
babies develop from head to toes
What shape is a baby's spine?
What is lordotic?
baby's belly is pushed forward as well as lumbar spine
When do women stop growing?
2 years post menarche
Define the barlow maneuver
- adduct hip in a baby
- Positive sign: hip goes out of socket
Define the Ortolani maneuver in infants
- abduct thighs and push downward
- Positive sign: you'll hear a "clunk"
Describe a trendelenburg gait
opposite side of affected hip drops and person walks with one hip higher than the other
Define Genum varum
When is it normal?
- Until 2.5 or 3 y/o
Describe Genum Valgum
When is it normal?
What are 3 causes of intoeing in an infant?
- femoral anteversion (from hip)
- Tibial Tortion
- Metatarsus adductus
When does the palmar grasp disappear?
When does the placing/stepping reflex disappear?
When does the rooting/sucking reflex disappear?
When does the Moro reflex disappear?
When does the tonic neck reflex disappear?
When does Babinski reflex disappear
- when the baby starts walking
When does the plantar reflex disappear?