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What are the 3 paradigms broadly divided for the explanations of human behavior?
- 1. biomedical or biological/physical models
- 2. psychological models ( including psychoanalytic, behavioural, cognitive and humanistic approaches)
- 3. Sociological models.
What is the theory of the biomedical model of human behavior?
proposes that behaviour is influenced by physiology, with normal behaviour occurring when the body is in a state of equilibrium and abnormal behaviour being a consequence of physical pathology.
What is the psychoanalytic theory for human behaviour?
asserts that behaviour is driven by unconscious processes and influenced by childhood/developmental conflicts that have either been resolved or remain unresolved. (Freuds theory)
What is the Behavioural psychology theory for human behavior?
- presents the view that behaviour is influenced by factors external to the individual. Behaviours are learned depending on whether they are rewarded or not, by association with another event or by imitation.
- (Learning and environment—as experiencing)
What is the Cognitive psychology for human behavior?
- acknowledges the role of perception and thoughts about oneself, one’s individual experience and the environment in influencing behaviour. (Thinking/perception) –
- Locus of control – external (why bother) and internal (I got this)
What is the Humanistic psychology theory of human behavior?
– focuses on the development of a concept of self and\ the striving of the individual to achieve personal goals.
What is the Eclectic approach (holistic) for human behavior?
- (also called holistic) draws on the theory and research of several paradigms to obtain an overall understanding or provide a more comprehensive explanation than would be achieved by using one theoretical model alone.
- For example, in clinical practice cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a frequently used counselling approach; in research a mixed methods approach may be utilised. (Interdisciplinary)
What is the sociological theory of human behavior?
– shifts the emphasis from the individual to the broader social forces that influence people. This model challenges the notion of individual pathology and acknowledges the responsibility of society for the health of its citizens.
Explain the Diathesis–stress model.
serves to explore how biological or genetic traits (diatheses) interact with environmental influences (stressors) to produce disorders, such as depression, anxiety, or schizophrenia.
Critique the bio-medical model.
- - mind-body split
- focuses on the objective and not the subjective
- pathology -> human experience
According to Freud and his theory ( psychoanalytic theory) the mind is composed of three forces. What are they? and give a summary of each.
- The ID-the primitive biological force comprising two basic drives: sexual and aggressive. The id operates on the pleasure principle and seeks to satisfy life-sustaining
- needs such as food, love and creativity, in addition to sexual gratification.
- The ego-the cognitive component of personality that attempts to use realistic means (the reality principle) to achieve the desires of the id.
- The superego-the internalised moral standards of the society in which one lives. It represents the person’s ideal self and can be equated to a conscience.
What are the 5 stages of personality development without childhood that Freud's theory proposes?
- Freud’s stages of psychosexual development are
- 1. oral
- 2. anal
- 3. phallic
- 4. latent
- 5. genital
Critique the psychoanalytic theory.
- The unconscious nature of freuds concepts and stages makes them difficult to test and therefore there is little evidence
- Erik Erikson disagreed with Freuds theory of psychosexual stages of development and proposed instead a psycho social theory which development occurred throughout the lifespan not just through childhood
- Feminists also object to Freud’s interpretation of the psychological development of women, arguingthat there is scant evidence to support the hypothesis that women view their bodiesas inferior to men’s because they do not have a penis