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- Connective tissue membrane.
- 1. dura mater
- 2. arachnoid mater
- 3. pia mater
Is not visible superficially, and is hidden deep in the lateral sulcus
Used to monitor brain waves
- There distinguished by the different amplitudes and frequencies.
- Alpha, Beta, Theta, and Delta
Contralateral Neglect Syndrome
Lesions to the parietal lobe can cause people to become unaware of objects, or even their own limbs, on the on the other side of the body.
Lesion to the Frontal Lobe
devasting to the qualities we think of ad personality.
affects only declarative memory, not procedural memory
the patient is unable to store new information and establish new memories.
the patient is unable to recall things they knew before the injury
the multimodal assoication area for the sense of taste and smell
the "gateway to the cerebral cortex." Nearly all input to the cerebrum passes by way of synapses in this
neither is dominant, but is specialized for certain tasks.
- The difference in function.
- highly correlated with handedness
Is the one in 96% of right handed people.
Autonomic Nervous System
- is a visceral motor system that controls cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands.
- The signal must travel across two neurons to get to the target organ.
- the first neuron in the ANS (myelinated)
- the second neuron in the ANS (unmyelinated)
keeps blood vessels in a state of constriction thus maintaining blood pressure
The sympathetic divisions both exhibit a background rate of activity
holds the resting heart rate below its intrinsic rate
Of the ANS prepares the body for physical activity, increasing alertness, heart rate, and blood pressure, but inhibiting digestion. It arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord.
the major control center of the ANS
when stimulated it secretes a mixture of hormones into the blood stream consisting of 85% epinephrine, 15% norepinephrine, and trace amounts of dopamine
parasympathetic fibers are carried in four of the cranial nerves; vagus (X), oculomotor (lll), facial (Vll), and glossopharyngeal (lX). Has longer preganglionic fiber and shorter postganglionic fibers.
Neurons of the ANS
- They secrete either acetylcholine (ACh) or norepinephrine (NE).
- ACh is secreted by preganglionic neuron
- NE is secreted by nearly all postganglionic neurons.
are nerve fiber that secrete ACh
receptors that bind to ACh
Cholinergic Receptor Types
Muscarinic and nicotinic
all cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and gland cells that receive cholinergic innervation.
found in the neuromuscular junction of skittle muscle fibers, the autonomic ganglia where the preganglionic neurons stimulate the postganglionic cell, and the cells of the adrenal medulla. The binding of ACh is always excitatory.
Nerve fibers that secrete NE.
receptors that bind to NE
Enteric Nervous System
The digestive tract has a nervous system of its own
respond to heat and cold
responds to light
Responds to pain. Found in virtually all of the viscera except the brain. Injured tissues release chemicals that stimulate the receptors and trigger pain.
responds to physical deformation of a cell or tissue
is the most potent pain stimulus know
Internally produced opium-like substances and these include enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins.
the tongue exhibits surface protrusions
are the largest, arranged in a 'V' at the rear of the tongue, and contain up to half of all taste buds.
the organ of hearing
detect only angular acceleration
- a transparent mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelid anterior surface of the eyeball, except for the cornea.
- It is highly vascular and appears "bloodshot"when its vessels are dilated
is a state of elevated pressure within the eye resulting from obstruction of the scleral venous sinus
is a serous fluid secreted by the ciliary body