Chapter 14, 15, 16 A&P 1

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Chapter 14, 15, 16 A&P 1
2015-08-04 15:14:26

final exam for anatomy and physiology 1
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  1. Meninges 
    • Connective tissue membrane. 
    • 1. dura mater
    • 2. arachnoid mater
    • 3. pia mater
  2. Cerebral Hemisphere
    (five lobes)
    • Frontal 
    • Parietal
    • Occipital 
    • Temporal
  3. Insula
    Is not visible superficially, and is hidden deep in the lateral sulcus
  4. Electroencephalogram
    Used to monitor brain waves
  5. Brain Waves
    (four types)
    • There distinguished by the different amplitudes and frequencies.
    • Alpha, Beta, Theta, and Delta
  6. Contralateral Neglect Syndrome
    Lesions to the parietal lobe can cause people to become unaware of objects, or even their own limbs, on the on the other side of the body.
  7. Lesion to the Frontal Lobe
    devasting to the qualities we think of ad personality.
  8. Amnesia
    affects only declarative memory, not procedural memory
  9. Anterograde Amnesia
    the patient is unable to store new information and establish new memories.
  10. Retrograde Amnesia
    the patient is unable to recall things they knew before the injury
  11. Orbitofrontal Cortex
    the multimodal assoication area for the sense of taste and smell
  12. Thalamus
    the "gateway to the cerebral cortex." Nearly all input to the cerebrum passes by way of synapses in this
  13. Cerebral Hemispheres
    neither is dominant, but is specialized for certain tasks.
  14. Cerebral Lateralization
    • The difference in function.
    • highly correlated with handedness
  15. Left Hemisphere
    Is the one in 96% of right handed people.
  16. Autonomic Nervous System 
    • is a visceral motor system that controls cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands. 
    • The signal must travel across two neurons to get to the target organ.
  17. Preganglionic Neuron
    Postganglionic Neuron
    • the first neuron in the ANS (myelinated)
    • the second neuron in the ANS (unmyelinated)
  18. Sympathetic Tone
    keeps blood vessels in a state of constriction thus maintaining blood pressure
  19. Autonomic Tone
    The sympathetic divisions both exhibit a background rate of activity
  20. Parasympathetic Tone
    holds the resting heart rate below its intrinsic rate
  21. Sympathetic Division 
    Of the ANS prepares the body for physical activity, increasing alertness, heart rate, and blood pressure, but inhibiting digestion. It arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord.
  22. Hypothalamus
    the major control center of the ANS
  23. Adrenal Medulla
    when stimulated it secretes a mixture of hormones into the blood stream  consisting of 85% epinephrine, 15% norepinephrine, and trace amounts of dopamine
  24. Parasympathetic Division 
    (craniosacral division)
    parasympathetic fibers are carried in four of the cranial nerves; vagus (X), oculomotor (lll), facial (Vll), and glossopharyngeal (lX). Has longer preganglionic fiber and shorter postganglionic fibers.
  25. Neurons of the ANS
    • They secrete either acetylcholine (ACh) or norepinephrine (NE).  
    • ACh is secreted by preganglionic neuron
    • NE is secreted by nearly all postganglionic neurons.
  26. Cholinergic Fibers
    are nerve fiber that secrete ACh
  27. Cholinergic Receptors
    receptors that bind to ACh
  28. Cholinergic Receptor Types
    Muscarinic and nicotinic
  29. Muscarinic Receptor
    all cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and gland cells that receive cholinergic innervation.
  30. Nicotinic Receptors
    found in the neuromuscular junction of skittle muscle fibers, the autonomic ganglia where the preganglionic neurons stimulate the postganglionic cell, and the cells of the adrenal medulla. The binding of ACh is always excitatory.
  31. Adrenergic Fibers
    Nerve fibers that secrete NE.
  32. Adrenergic Receptors
    receptors that bind to NE
  33. Enteric Nervous System
    The digestive tract has a nervous system of its own
  34. Thermoreceptors
    respond to heat and cold
  35. Photoreceptors
    responds to light
  36. Nociceptors
    Responds to pain. Found in virtually all of the viscera except the brain. Injured tissues release chemicals that stimulate the receptors and trigger pain.
  37. Mechanoreceptors
    responds to physical deformation of a cell or tissue
  38. Bradykinin
    is the most potent pain stimulus know
  39. Endogenous Opioids
    Internally produced opium-like substances and these include enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins.
  40. Lingual Papillae
    the tongue exhibits surface protrusions
  41. Vallate Papillae
    are the largest, arranged in a 'V' at the rear of the tongue, and contain up to half of all taste buds.
  42. Eardrum
    Tympanic Membrane
  43. Auditory Ossicles
    • Malleus 
    • Incus 
    • Stapes
  44. Cochlea
    the organ of hearing
  45. Semicircular Ducts
    detect only angular acceleration
  46. Conjunctiva
    • a transparent mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelid anterior surface of the eyeball, except for the cornea.
    • It is highly vascular and appears "bloodshot"when its vessels are dilated
  47. Glaucoma
    is a state of elevated pressure within the eye resulting from obstruction of the scleral venous sinus
  48. Aqueous Humor
    is a serous fluid secreted by the ciliary body