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What is a critical component?
A component essential for the system to perform its function.
What institutional engineering procedures are in place?
- PD340 Conduct of Engineering
- P341 Engineering Processes Manual
- P342 Engineering Standards
- P343 Engineering Training & Qualification Manual
- 341 series APs
Describe the LANL Item Dedication and Alternate Item Evaluation Process (AP-341-703)
Item Dedication is an acceptance process undertaken to provide reasonable assurance that a commercial grade item or LANL fabricated part for a safety system meets specified requirements. This assurance is achieved by identifying critical characteristics of the item and verifying their acceptability by inspections, tests or analysis.
When the replacement item characteristics are different from the original item, the laboratory engineering personnel perform an alternate item evaluation.
What is a safety function?
A function of an SSC that has been credited with preventing, mitigating, or detecting a hazard.
What is a design feature?
A feature of a nuclear facility that is:
- Important to safety
- Normally passive characteristics
- Not subject to routine modification
- Do not require, or infrequently require, maintenance or surveillance
- and if altered or modified, would have a significant effect on safe operation
What is a performance characteristic?
A property of a test that is used to describe its quality, e.g. accuracy, precision, sensitivity etc.
What is a critical characteristic?
The properties or attributes of SSCs that we consider essential for form, fit, function and failure modes
Some critical characteristics are:
- dimensions and tolerances
- material composition and grade
- yield strength
- tensile strength
What is a Safety Analysis?
A documented process to identify hazards, analyze measures for preventing or mitigating those hazards and evaluating potential accidents and their risks.
The documented safety analysis is referred to as the Safety Basis and is a subset of the authorization basis.
What is Defense in Depth?
Defense in Depth is an approach to safety that considers multiple layers of safety are better than a single protection mechanism.
What is an Administrative Control?
When engineering controls are not feasible or are in the process of being implemented, administrative controls are the next line of defense. They rely on personal implementation or intervention.
Safety management programs.
Where would you find the VSS safety function?
DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U.S. D.O.E. Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analysis.
- Chap. 3 - Hazard & Accident Analysis
- Chap. 4 - Safety SSCs
What is a System Design Description (SDD)?
A document for describing the requirements and features of a system.
What is a Facility Design Description (FDD)?
A document for describing the requirements and features of a facility
What DOE Orders or Standards are applicable to system operation and availability?
- DOE O 420.1C, Facility Safety
- DOE O 433.1, Maintenance Management Program
- DOE STD 1073-2003, Configuration Management
What LANL Policy Documents are applicable to system operation and availability?
- P 1020-1, Laboratory Records Management
- P 110, Safety Basis
What function does the operations manager provide for this system?
The OM is responsible for the overall safety and safe operation of the facility.
What function does the Engineering Manager provide?
The Engineering Manager provides technical support within the facility in the areas of safety basis and engineering.
DAR is designated by The Site Chief Engineer (DA, Larry Goen).
What function does the Facility Operations Director (FOD) provide?
The FOD, Les Sonnenberg, provides organizational leadership for facility Maintenance, Engineering, ESH&Q, Operations and Waste Services. (MEEOW)
The FOD takes direction from the Responsible Associate Director (RAD)
What function does the Authorization Basis (AB) Manager provide?
- Ensure the scope of activities/operations of the facility is analyzed in a compliant Safety Basis.
- Provide safety basis analysts to support the development, review and maintenance of safety basis documents
- Provide recommendations to the FOD and Safety Basis Management
What function does the CSE provide?
- Configuration Management
- Support to Operations and Maintenance
- System Performance Monitoring
The CSE has technical understanding of System D
esting, and M
What is considered a priority document?
- Vital Safety System documents
- P&IDs, One Lines, Facility Evacuation maps and Valve Lineups
- Required for alarm response
- Required for facility event compensatory actions
- Required for TSRs
Where would you look to see what is a priority document for your facility
P341, Engineering Processes Manual.
Where are vendor manuals stored?
MDL or personally stored.
What is considered a support document?
Process flow sheets, SDDs, Fire Protection and Equipment Location Plans
Provides engineering, maintenance and operations details necessary for SSC operations
What is considered a general document?
Structural, Architectural, Civil, Piping and Ductwork
Information that provides engineering details necessary for construction and generally not maintained.
Discuss the FMEA process
A Failure Modes and Effects Analysis is a systematic method for examining the effects of component failures on system performance.
Determine risk priority number (RPN=SPD, Severity x Probability x Detection)
Discuss Root Cause Analyses/Process
- Describe WHAT happened
- Describe HOW it happened
- Describe WHY it happened
Describe the work control process
A process that ensures all work is properly (CRAITD) controlled, reviewed, approved, implemented, tested and documented.
Where would you find the MEL
What is a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA)
An agreement between the contractor and DOE for the safe operation of the facility and the risks DOE has accepted.
What LANL maintenance procedures are in place?
- AP-MNT-002 Seasonal Facility Preservation,
- MNT-003 Determining Maintenance Facility, Equipment, and Tool Needs,
- MNT-004 Facility Condition Inspection,
- MNT-006 Preventive and Predictive Maintenance,
- MNT-007 Measuring, Analyzing, and Reporting Maintenance Performance,
- MNT 008 Control of Maintenance Tools and Equipment,
- MNT-010 Maintenance History and
- MNT-013 Deferred Maintenance Identification and Reporting
- Ap-WORK-001 Work Initiation, Screening, and Acceptance
- AP-WORK-002 Work Planning
- AP-WORK-003 Work Scheduling
- AP-WORK-004 Work Performance
- AP-WORK-005 Work Closeout
Where would you find the CoE APs?
CoE web page
What is the purpose of a TSR?
To reduce the possibility or limit the consequences of an accident.
The TSRs include safety limits, operating limits, surveillance requirements, administrative and management controls and design features.
Describe the role of a CSE in the TSR process
- Be knowledgeable of Design Features
- Be knowledgeable of TSRs
- Maintain knowledge of DOE-STD-3009-94 Chapter 5, Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements
What is an ISI?
In-Service Inspection - a periodic non-destructive examination of SSCs
What is an LCO?
The limits that represent the lowest functional performance level of SSCs required for safe operations.
What is an operating limit?
Those limits required to ensure the safe operation of a nuclear facility, including limiting control settings and limiting conditions for operation LCO.
What is an Authorization Basis?
Safety documentation supporting the decision to allow a process or facility to operate.
Why are USQs performed?
To determine if what we propose is within our safety basis and therefor does not require DOE approval
If you found a safety analysis inadequacy, what actions would you take?
Bring it to the attention of the EM and DAR
Describe the importance of a Safety Basis
- Defines the scope of work
- Identifies the hazards associated with the work
- Categorizes the facility/activity
- Prepares a DSA
- Establishes hazard controls relied upon to ensure adequate protection of workers, the public and the environment
What is a PISA?
Potentially Inadequate Safety Analysis that may arise from three conditions
- A discrepant as-found condition
- An operational event or incident
- New information
Steps to take
- Place the facility in a safe condition until evaluated.
- Notify DOE.
- Perform a USQD and notify DOE of results.
- Submit evaluation of the safety of the situation to DOE prior to removing any restrictions.
What is a BIO?
Basis for Interim Operation
Interim Operations are:
- A nuclear facility with a limited operational life
- The deactivation of a nuclear faclility
- The transition surveillance and maintenance of a nuclear facility
What is a Surveillance Test?
A periodic test for monitoring performance characteristics.
What is Management Level?
Management Level (ML) reflects the consequence of failure portion of risk to a facility or its systems.
ML-1 - The preventive and mitigative function that is necessary for limiting radioactive hazardous material exposure to the public. This function is Safety Class (SC).
ML-2 - The preventive and mitigative function that is a major contributor to defense-in-depth and/or safety of collocated workers. This function is Safety Significant (SS).
ML-3 - Defense in Depth: The preventive and mitigative function that falls below the threshold of SC and SS but is important for protection of the public, workers, or the environment.
ML-4 - The function that is not designated ML-1, ML-2, or ML-3 is designated ML-4.
What is the document that describes the LANL CoE program?
- PD 340, Conduct of Engineering
- P 341, Engineering Processes Manual
Describe the Operability Determination and Functional Assessment Process
Immediate Operability Determination
Upon discovery of a degraded, non-conforming or unanalyzed condition, an IOD is made without delay and in a controlled manner using the best available information. Responsibility of Operations.
Prompt Operability Determination
Follow up to IOD when additional info is needed to confirm the IOD. Responsibility of the System Engineer.
Performed on a non-safety system or OEITSs (other equip. important to safety) to determine if SSC performs specified functions.
Describe System Health Report Process
Periodic documented assessment of SSCs to assure they will continue to perform their required functions at the required level when required to do so. Trends Availability, Reliability, Operability, Maintainability and Aging degradation. (AROMA)
Describe the VSS Assessment Process
Assessment of a vital safety system in seven topical areas every three years.
- Engineering Design and Safety Basis
- Construction and Installation
- Configuration Management
- Surveillance and Testing
- Cognizant System Engineering Program
What document describes the System Engineer Program?
DOE O 420.1C, Facility Safety Chapter V, System Engineer Program
Describe VSS operability vs functionality
OPERABLE - an SSC is capable of performing all of its credited safety functions at the level assumed in the approved safety analysis.
FUNCTIONAL - an SSC is capable of performing all of its functions including its specified credited safety functions.
Describe availability, operability, reliability and maintainability (ROAM)
AVAILABILITY - The ability of an SSC to perform its required function at a stated instant of time over a stated period of time.
OPERABILITY - The ability of an SSC to perform its required function when all necessary auxiliary equipment perform their related function.
RELIABILITY - The probability that an SSC will perform a required function under stated conditions for a stated period of time.
MAINTAINABILITY - The ability of an SSC to be retained in, or restored to, a state in which it can perform its required functions, when maintenance is performed.
Describe the entry conditions for the USQD process
Temporary or permanent change to the facility.
- Temporary or permanent change to procedures.
- A new test or experiment.
The seven questions.
Part 1: Previously evaluated accidents or malfunctions that could increase probability or consequences.
1. Could the proposed change increase the probability
of an accident previously evaluated in the facility's existing safety analysis?
- 2. Could the proposed change increase the consequences of an accident previously evaluated in the facility's safety analysis?
- 3. Could the proposed change increase the probability of a malfunction of equipment important to safety previously described in the facility's existing safety analysis?
- 4. Could the proposed change increase the consequences of a malfunction of equipment important to safety described in the facility's safety analysis?
Part 2: possibility of creating a new type of accident or malfunction.
- 5. Could the proposed change create the possibility of an accident of a different type than any previously evaluated in the facility's existing safety analysis?
- 6. Could the proposed change create the possibility of a malfunction of equipment important to safety of a different type than any previously evaluated in the facility's existing safety analysis?
Part 3: decrease in a margin of safety.
7. Could the proposed change reduce a margin of safety?
Describe the Post Maintenance/Modification Testing process
PMT verifies that SSCs are capable of performing their intended function when returned to service following modification or maintenance.
- Performs intended functions
- Original deficiency has been corrected
- No new deficiency has been created
Describe the Master Equipment List (MEL)
The MEL is an electronic database that captures and controls information such as identification number, name, function, location, vendor data, design information, management level, maintenance history and reference documentation.
Discuss the CSE role in maintenance performance
- Described in P950 Conduct of MaintenanceSeasonal Facility Preservation
- Facility Condition InspectionPreventive and Predictive Maintenance
- Measuring, Analyzing and Reporting of Maintenance Performance
- Control of Maintenance Tools and Equipment
- Maintenance History
What is Technical Baseline?
Safety documentation to identify, justify and demonstrate the physical, functional or operational requirements of configuration managed SSCs. (Priority, Support and General)
What is Configuration Management?
Establishes and maintains consistency among design requirements, physical configuration and documentation for SSCs.
What is Risk
The function of the Consequence of failure vs. the Probability of occurrence.
What are the types of Engineered Controls
Passive Control - a control that does not change state to perform its safety function.
Active Control - a control that changes state or undergoes motion to perform its safety function.
What is Hazard Categorization?
An evaluation of the consequences of unmitigated releases to categorize facilities or operations into:
- Hazcat 1: The hazard analysis shows the potential for significant offsite consequences (MEOI maximally exposed offsite individual).
- Hazcat 2: The hazard analysis shows the potential for significant onsite consequences.
- Hazcat 3: The hazard analysis shows the potential for only significant localized consequences.
Hierarchy of Hazard Controls
- Engineered Control (Passive & Active) before Administrative Control
- Passive Control before Active Control
- Preventive Control before Mitigative Control
Risk Based Graded Approach
Involves grading based on an estimation of consequence of failure. Determines depth, extent and degree of rigor necessary in the application of requirements and controls.
Safety Basis Approval
Only DOE can accept the risk of operations documented in a Safety Basis.
For any facility needing DOE approval of the Safety Basis, approval is provided in a document known as a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) where the DOE presents the rationale for approval.
SERs may sometimes contain Conditions of Approval (COAs)
Discuss NonConformance Reporting process
- Identify non-conforming item or service. identified through receipt inspection, service inspection, testing, assessment, qualification, installation etc.
- Stop work if item or service presents a hazard.
- Segregate item.Notify item or service requestor.QA verification of non-conformance. Verify the condition actually represents a nonconformance.
- Investigation. Identify the cause for appropriate corrective actions.
- Determine Disposition. Use-as-is, Repair, Rework, Reject. USQ required for use-as-is and repair.
- Closure. A final review of the report.
What are Surveillance Requirements?
Inspections and tests to verify systems are performing their safety functions.
- Chap. 3 - Hazard and Accident Analysis
- Chap. 4 - Safety Structures, Systems and Components
- Chap. 5 - Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements
- Chap. 2 - Safety Limits (not applicable for SI)
- Chap. 3/4 - LCOs and SRs (not applicable for SI)
- Chap. 5 - Administrative Controls
- Chap. 6 - Design Features
What is a Conditional Release?
A controlled, documented, and approved release of a nonconforming item for limited use.
The product of 5 factors:
- The MAR
- The Damage Ratio (DR)
- The Airborne Release Fraction (ARF)
- The Respirable Fraction (RF)
- The Leakpath Factor (LPF)
JCO, Justification for Continued Operation
Allows continued operation temporarily. Safety Basis writes it, DOE approves it.
CGD-4 Methods for Acceptance of Critical Characteristics
- 1. Special Tests, Inspections and/or Analyses
- 2. Commercial Grade Survey of Supplier
- 3. Source Verification
- 4. Acceptable Supplier Item or Service Performance Record
- There are four general ways in which TSR violations occur.
- First, TSR violations can happen when someone fails to complete an ACTION within the required COMPLETION TIMES after either exceeding the conditions of an LCO, or failing to successfully meet the SURVEILLANCE REQUIREMENTS (SR).
- Second, failing to perform the SR or In-Service Inspection within the required FREQUENCY is a violation of the TSR.
- Third, a violation of the TSR can occur by failing to comply with an AC, either by a direct violation of an AC, such as not meeting minimum staffing requirements, or when the intent of a program included in the ACs is not fulfilled.Finally, any failure of a Design Feature to meet its respective performance criteria, functional requirements, or safety function following being placed in service after a planned or inadvertent modification is a violation of the TSR.
Response to TSR Violations. If a TSR violation occurs, two actions must be taken.
- Notify DOE/NNSA of the violation in accordance with DOE requirements.
- Prepare an occurrence report in accordance with DOE requirements.
Safety Management Programs
In addition to DFs, LCOs, and ACs, there are a number of institutional Safety Management Programs (SMPs) that provide for additional risk reduction at TA-54, Area G by adding to the defense-in-depth strategy for all TRU and non-TRU event scenarios and contributing to the overall risk reduction for the facility.These SMPs include:
- Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ)Program
- Emergency Preparedness (EP)Program
- Nuclear Criticality Safety Program
- Fire Protection Program
- RadiationProtection Program
- Configuration Management Program
- Quality Assurance Program