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What is cataract?
Lens opacity or cloudiness.
Can develop in one eye or both and at any age.
R/F of cataract:
- cigarette smoking
- long-term use of corticosteroids (esp. high doses)
- sunlight and ionizing radiation
- eye injuries
S/SX of cataract:
- Painless, blurry visionSurroundings are dimmer
- Light scattering; reduced contrast sensitivity, sensitivity to glare, and reduced visual acuity.
- Myopic shift (ability to do close work->reading fine print without eyeglasses)
- Monocular diplopia (double vision)
- Color shift
- Reduced light transmission
Assessment and DX findings:
- *Degree of visual acuity is directly proportionate to density of the cataract
- Snellen visual acuity test
- Slit-lamp biomicroscopic exmination
Medical management of cataract:
tx cures cataract or px age-related cataracts.
- *SURGICAL MANAGEMENT:
- 1. Phacoemulsifiation (extracapsular cataract surgery)
- 2. Lens replacement (aphakic eyeglasses, contact lenses, and intraoclar lens implants)
*when both eyes have cataracts, ONE eye is treated FIRST.
N/I for a pt with cataract:
- withhold any anticoagulant (if appropriate)
- give DILATING DROPS (mydiatrics) every 10 mins for four doses at least 1 hour before surgery.
- antibiotic, corticosteroids and anti-inflammatory drops may be given as prophylactic (px post op infxn and inflammation)
- (+)pain-> mild analgesic (acetaminophen)