AP Chap 15, 16 Test
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Three types of neurons of the retina.
- Photoreceptors (rods & cones)
- Bipolar cells
- Ganglion cells
Photoreceptors that are more numerous and are responsible for dimlight and peripheral vision.
Photoreceptors which operate in bright light and high color vision.
Where optic fibers cross.
This concentration of cones is located where visual images hit the retina. This is where vision is sharpest.
Type of cell located in the neural layer of the retina that signal the ganglion cells to generate an action potential.
The fovea cantralis of the macula lutea contain mostly these types of photoreceptors.
The path of light as it enters the eye.
- Through cornea,
- aqueous humor,
- vitreous humor,
- through neural layer of retina.
Vision problem which occurs when distant objects are focused in front of the retina and become blurry. Corrected with concave lenses.
Myopia or nearsightedness
Vision problem which occurs when distant objects are focused behind the retina. Corrected with convex lenses.
Hyperopia or farsightedness
Occurs when we move from darkness into bright light. Rods and cones are both strongly stimulated causing glare, retinal sensitivity is lost and visual acuity is gained.
Occurs when we move from bright area to a dark one. Cones stop functioning and rods are still turned off because of bleaching by bright light.
The type of receptors which are responsible for olfactory and gustatory senses.
This acts as a solvent that captures and dissolves airborne odorants, making a solution which then stimulates olfactory receptors.
For a chemical to be tasted, these three things must occur.
- dissolve in saliva making a solution
- diffuse into the taste pore
- contact the gustatory hair
This is easily transplanted from one person to another, with little risk of rejection due to its lack of blood vessels.
The three major areas of the ear.
The major areas of the ear involved in hearing only.
The major area of the ear that functions in both equilibrium and hearing.
Name the three auditory ossicles.
The three regions of the bony labyrinth.
- Semicircular canals
These two membranous labyrinth sacs located in the vestibule of the bony labyrinth house equilibrium receptors.
The crista ampullaris, which houses equilibrium receptors that respond to rotational movements of the head, is located in this region of the bony labyrinth.
The vestibule sac which responds to the horizontal movements of the head.
The vestibule sac that responds to the vertical movement of the head.
The gelled mass located in each saccule and utricle. Responds to static equilibrium (linear acceleration).
The receptor for dynamic equilibrium. Located in the semicircular canals of the bony orbit. Stimulated by rotatory movements.
This includes the equilibrium receptors in the semicircular canals and the vestibule.
This stimulates both the olfactory and gustatory receptors.
The gelled mass of the crista ampullaris.
Three major types of stimuli that trigger endocrine glands to manufacture and release their hormones.
Oxytocin is an example of this type of feedback mechanism.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin are stored in the axon terminals in this part of the pituitary.
This can inhibit ADH.
The vascular connection between the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus.
The hypophyseal portal system
An unusual arrangement of blood vessels that consists of the primary and secondary capillary plexus and the hypophyseal portal veins.
Hypophyseal portal system
ADH is an example of this type of feedback mechanism.
Three signs of diabetes.
Huge urine output that leads to decreases bloof volume and dehydration. A sign of diabetes.
Excessive thirst because of dehydration. A sign of diabetes.
Refers to excessive hunger associated with diabetes. Occurs because glucose in blood cannot be used and, body begins to utilize fat and protein stores for energy metabolism.
A mixed gland composed of endocrine and exocrine gland cells. Secretions are carried through ducts into the small intestine. Hormones produced are the glucagon- synthesizing alpha and insulin-producing beta cells which act as fuel sensors during fasting and fed states.
Gland, or knot of nervous tissue, which synthesizes epinephrine and norepinephrine. Sympathetic, fight-or-flight response.
Glands located posterior to the thyroid gland. Secretes a hormone is most important for regulation of calcium balance of blood.
The largest pure endocrine gland that is located on the anterior of the neck. Secretes the body's major metabolic hormone and calcitonin.
A gland that secretes at least nine hormones, including growth hormone and gonadotropins (FSH and LH) in the anterior, and oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the posterior.
Pituitary or hypophysis
A lack of this can result in a goiter, which occurs when there is an accumulation of unusable colloid. Thyroid hormones, specifically thyroxine, cannot be produced.
This hormone is secreted by the heart when blood pressure rises. One of its major effects is to inhibit the renin-angiotensin mechanism and keeps the sodium-water balance of the body in check. Sodium is flows out of the body with urine, decreasing blood pressure.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
This hormones prime metabolic effect is to provoke gluconeogenisis, which is the formation of glucose from fats and proteins.
This is broken down by the body into glucose when there is a high level of insulin, (low level of sugar). Produced by alpha cells of the pancreas, target the liver. Small peptide but very effective regulator.
These cells, found in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas, produce insulin which breaks down sugar.
Name five hormones excreted by the adenohypophysis.
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyrotropin
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticotropin
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a gonadotropin
- Luteinizing hormone (LH), a gonadotropin
This hormone regulates sodium and potassium levels. It reduces the excretion of sodium.
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