A&P1 - Test 1

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cbennett
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306249
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A&P1 - Test 1
Updated:
2015-08-16 17:14:51
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P1
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A&P1
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Test 1
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  1. Pertaining to the highest point of the shoulder
    Acromial
  2. Pertaining to the chin
    Mental
  3. Pertaining to the forearm
    Antebrachial
  4. Pertaining to the hand
    Manual
  5. Pertaining to the thigh
    Femoral
  6. Pertaining to the anterior surface of the leg
    Crural
  7. Pertaining to the lateral side of the leg
    Fibular or Peroneal
  8. Pertaining to the posterior surface of the leg
    Sural
  9. frontal or coronal
  10. oblique plane
  11. transverse
  12. parasagittal
  13. midsagittal
  14. longitudinal section
  15. cross-section
  16. frontal
  17. transverse
  18. midsaggital
  19. membrane layer that covers the organs?
    visceral layer
  20. membrane layer that attaches to and covers the ventral body wall?
    parietal layer
    • 1=R Hypochondriac       5=Umbilical
    • 2=Epigastric                 6=L Lumbar
    • 3=L Hypochondriac       7=R Inguinal
    • 4=R Lumbar                 8=Hypogastric/Pubic
    •                      9=L Inguinal
  21. Name A-E
    • A=Nucleolus
    • B=Nucleus
    • C=Nuclear Envelope
    • D=Rough ER
    • E=Golgi Apparatus
  22. Name H, I, J
    • H=Mitochondria
    • I=Cell Membrane
    • J=Ribosome
  23. The mitotic phase when normal cell work is going on, cell growth occurs, and DNA replicates?
    interphase
  24. interphase
  25. prophase
  26. metaphase
  27. anaphase
  28. telophase
  29. More water, less solute concentration is?
    Hypotonic solution
  30. More solute concentration with less water is?
    Hypertonic solution
  31. there is a chemical exchange that occurs with all individual cells, this is called?
    internal respiration

    vs. external respiration (lungs)
  32. Name items necessary for Life Functions
    • exchange with environment
    • reproduction
    • metabolism
    • homeostasis
    • growth and development
  33. Name the levels of structural organization
    chemical > cellular > tissues > organ >

    organ systems > organismal
  34. The simplest collection of matter that can be alive?
    The cell
  35. Basic features of all cells?
    • Plasma membrane
    • Phospholipid cell membrane
    • Semifluid substance called cytosol
    • Chromosomes (carry genes)
    • Ribosomes (make proteins) Instructions
  36. The plasma membrane controls the movement of molecules into and out of the cell, a trait called?
    Selective Permeability
  37. genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the?
    Ribosomes
  38. Ribosomes use the information from the DNA to make?
    Proteins
  39. This organelle modifies proteins before they leave the cell
    Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
  40. Once proteins are synthesized and ready for transport they are put into ________ to be sent to other places to perform functions
    vesicles
  41. Which organelle does the protein get processed? (the post office of the cell)
    Golgi Apparatus
  42. ? is a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules
    Lysosomes
  43. Lysosomal enzymes can hydrolyze?
    • proteins
    • fat
    • polysaccharides
    • nucleic acids
  44. Organelle that uses cellular respiration, a metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP
    Build up ATP by eating food
    All organisms have
    Mitochondria
  45. a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell?
    Cytoskeleton
  46. What does cytoskeleton provide?
    • Helps move things around (cilia, flagellum)
    • provides support
    • involved in transportation
    • Gives it shape
  47. Mitochondria has it's own set of ?
    Provided only by the mother
    genes (mitochondrial DNA)
  48. What processes must a cell perform?
    • Metabolism
    • Regulation
    • DNA
    • Reproduction…
  49. What type of reproduction involves inheritance of all genes from one parent, cloning, and is the vast majority of reproduction within our body?
    Asexual reproduction
  50. Why is sexual reproduction important and vital to life?
    • Sexual reproduction is to provide variety of off spring
    • Variety provides for survival for the future
  51. chromosomes are composed of ?
    chromatin
  52. What is contained in chromatin?
    DNA + proteins (within the nucleus)
  53. Allows passage of hydrophilic substances across the membrane
    transport proteins
  54. The process where molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until everything is the same concentration?
    Diffusion
  55. The diffusion of water across a membrane is called?
    Osmosis
  56. indicates that the concentration of a solute is the same on both sides
    isotonic
  57. indicates that the concentration of solute is higher outside the cell
    hypertonic
  58. indicates a lower concentration of solute outside the cell
    hypotonic
  59. Cells have a mechanism for moving a solute against its concentration gradient
    It requires the expenditure of energy in the form of ATP
    Active transport
  60. Why is it important to have more surface area?
    Surface area allows us to make exchanges with outside environment, making survival easier
  61. Name the 11 organ systems
    • respiratory
    • integumentary
    • reproductive
    • digestive
    • cardiovascular
    • pulmonary
    • skeletal
    • nervous
    • endocrine
    • lymphatic
    • urinary
  62. what is the most abundant chemical in the body?
    water
  63. give an example of negative feedback to maintain homeostasis?
    body temperature regulation
  64. give an example of positive feedback in the body to maintain homeostasis?
    • labor contractions
    • blood clotting
  65. term that divides the head, neck, and trunk
    axial skeleton
  66. term that divides the limbs from the rest of the body
    appendicular skeleton
  67. the dorsal body cavity contains?
    • cranial cavity
    • vertebral cavity
  68. the ventral body cavity contains?
    • thoracic cavity
    • abdominopelvic cavity
  69. name the thoracic cavity subdivisions
    • two pleural cavities
    • mediastinum
    • pericardial cavity
  70. name the abdominopelvic cavity subdivisions
    • abdominal cavity
    • pelvic cavity
  71. what organs are contained in the abdominal cavity
    • stomach
    • intestines
    • spleen
    • liver
  72. what organs are contained in the pelvic cavity?
    • urinary bladder
    • reproductive organs
    • rectum
  73. name the three most common elements in the body
    • oxygen
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
  74. what determines an atom's identity?
    the number of protons
  75. a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio?
    compound (ex. NaCl)
  76. if atoms are charged the same they...
    repel (like magnets)
  77. it atoms are charged opposites they...
    attract (ionic bonds)
  78. when atoms share bonds this is called
    covalent bonds
  79. an atom's attraction for the electrons in a covalent bond is called
    electronegativity
  80. what is it called when atoms share the electron equally
    nonpolar covalent bond
  81. What is a chemical reaction - goes on constantly in our bodies?
    breaking bonds then making bonds
  82. what is the measure of stored energy?
    calories
  83. nam different types of lipids
    • carbs
    • proteins
    • DNA & RNA
  84. lipids are water insoluble which means they are?
    hydrophobic
  85. what type of lipids can be packed tightly and become solid at room temp?
    saturated
  86. why can't unsaturated fats be packed tightly and don't become solid at room temp?
    double bonds create a "kink"
  87. what is a lipid that is structurally similar to fats and an important component of all cells?
    phospholipids
  88. phospholipids make up our cell...?
    membrane
  89. a single building block is called ?
    monomer (ex. protein)
  90. when monomers are identically strung together as building blocks they are called?
    polymers (ex. amino acids)
  91. what is the building block (monomer) of amino acids?
    proteins
  92. what is the building block (monomer) of DNA & RNA?
    nucleotides
  93. DNA / RNA (has phosphate group)
  94. amino acid (contains nitrogen)
  95. carbohydrate (forms a "ring")
  96. fats and lipids (long chains of carbon)
  97. what part of DNA holds our genetic info?
    the nitrogenous bases change (A, T, C, G)
  98. the unequal sharing of electrons within a molecule
    polarity

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