Cell Biology Day 22

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  1. Elongation
    The stage of translation in which the main part of protein synthesis occurs (the polpeptide is elongated as more amino acids are added).

    • Gene
    • A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
  2. Initiation
    Term used to describe the beginning of protein synthesis in translation, and of RNA synthesis in transcription.
  3. Polyribosomes
    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, one mRNA molecule can be translated by several ribosomes simultaneously, allowing rapid protein synthesis. Each ribosome makes one identical copy of the entire polypeptide encoded by the mRNA.
  4. Start codon
    The start codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript translated by a ribosome. The start codon always codes for methionine in eukaryotes and a modified Met (fMet) in prokaryotes. The most common start codon is AUG.
  5. Termination
    The final phase of translation in which a stop codon is recognised by protein release factors. Also used in the context of transcription.
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Cell Biology Day 22
2015-08-11 20:20:35
Day 22 of cell biology glossary
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