The stage of translation in which the main part of protein synthesis occurs (the polpeptide is elongated as more amino acids are added).
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
Term used to describe the beginning of protein synthesis in translation, and of RNA synthesis in transcription.
In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, one mRNA molecule can be translated by several ribosomes simultaneously, allowing rapid protein synthesis. Each ribosome makes one identical copy of the entire polypeptide encoded by the mRNA.
The start codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript translated by a ribosome. The start codon always codes for methionine in eukaryotes and a modified Met (fMet) in prokaryotes. The most common start codon is AUG.
The final phase of translation in which a stop codon is recognised by protein release factors. Also used in the context of transcription.