final

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Author:
mnvang321
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306355
Filename:
final
Updated:
2015-08-13 21:09:34
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biochem
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final
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  1. In fatty acid synthesis, acyl or acetyl carbon units are transported by...
    citrate to the cytoplasm
  2. Ubiqutin is a
    protein that is attached to other proteins destined for recycling.
  3. A stomach proteolytic enzyme is...
    Pepsin
  4. What determines half-life of a protein?
    N-terminal amino acid residue (degron)
  5. The protein degrading "machine" is
    The Proteasome
  6. Hyper-ubiquitination enzyme (E3) creates
    Cervical Tumors; cause the premature recycling of DNA repair proteins which leads to the development of the tumor
  7. Inactive ubiquitination enzyme (E3) creates
    Parkinson disease
  8. Nitrogenase
    is the enzyme that fixes nitrogen to ammonia.
  9. -cAMP
    -cGMP
    -Ca+(Calcium)
    -inosital triphosphate
    -diacylglycerol
    are examples of...
    Secondary messengers
  10. Organisms capable of carrying out reduction of atmospheric nitrogen include
    some bacteria and archaea
  11. Inositate is
    A purine that can ultimately be converted to adenylate and guanylate.
  12. In the urea cycle, the second nitrogen of urea enters the cycle in the form of which of the following metabolites?
    Aspartate
  13. Adenylate cyclase catalyzes the..
    • formation of cAMP from ATP
    • and hydrolyzes GTP to GDP
  14. Enzymes that digest the triacylglycerols into free fatty acids and monoacylglcerol are called
    Lipases
  15. What organs or tissues prefer to use ketone bodies such as acetoacetate as a fuel energy source instead of glucose?
    -heart muscle
  16. Oxaloacetate can be transaminated to...
    aspartate
  17. Glucogenic Amino acids are
    amino acids that are degraded to pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, fumarate, or oxaloacetate.
  18. Ketogenic Amino acids that degrade into Acetyl-CoA are
    • Isoleucine
    • Leucine
    • Tryptophan
  19. Ketogenic Amino acids that degrade into Acetoacetyl CoA are
    • Leucine
    • Lysine
    • Phenylalanine
    • Tryptophan
    • Tyrosine
  20. Glucogenic Amino acids that degrade to pyruvate are
    • Alanine 
    • Cysteine 
    • Glycine 
    • Serine 
    • Threonine 
    • Tryptophan
  21. Glucogenic amino acids that degrade to oxaloacetate are
    • Asparagine 
    • Aspartate
  22. Glucogenic amino acids that degrade to Fumarate are
    • Aspartate 
    • Phenylalanine
    • Tyrosine
  23. Glucogenic amino acids that degrade to Succinyl-CoA are
    • Isoleucine 
    • Methionine 
    • Threonine 
    • Valine
  24. Glucogenic amino acids that degrade to alpha-ketoglutarate are
    • Arginine
    • Glutamine 
    • Glutamate
    • Histidine 
    • Proline
  25. Pepsin is .....
    one of the major proteases that digest proteins
  26. Essentials amino acids needed...
    • Phenylalanine
    • Histidine
    • Isoleucine
    • Leucine
    • Lysine
    • Methionine
    • Treonine
    • Tryptophan
    • Valine
  27. Proteins inside cell can be recycled for 3 different reasons...
    1. time is up ; half-life for a protein is dependent on N-terminal amino acid.

    2. they're misfolded because of translational errors

    3. damaged and hence misfolded by different factors
  28. Which component of the proteasome hydrolyzes the "doomed" protein to amino acids?
    20S catalytic unit
  29. 19S is a
    regulatory unit in the proteasome that binds to ubiquitin and hydrolyzes ubiquitin then passes the protein to 20S catalytic core.
  30. Enzymes used in the Fatty acids synthesis
    • Beta-ketoacyl reductase 
    • dehyratase 
    • enoyl reducatse 
    • tholase
  31. intermediates in the fatty acid synthesis
    • acetyl CoA
    • |
    • malonyl Coa --> malonyl ACP + acetyl ACP
    • |
    • Acetoacetyl ACP
    • |
    • D-3-Hydroxbutylryl ACP
    • |
    • Crotonyl ACP
    • |
    • Butyryl ACP + Malonyl ACP
    • |
    • C6-Beta-Ketoacyl-ACP
  32. Amino acids that are degraded to acetyl-CoA or Acetoacetyl CoA give rise to ketone bodies or fatty acids are called
    Ketogenic Amino acids
  33. T/F
    We can synthesize glucose from aspartate?
    TRUE.
  34. T/F
    We can synthesize glucose from leucine and lysine?
    -FALSE, do not have glyoxylate cycle
  35. In the absence of Phenylalanine Hydroxlase, what is the fate of phenylalanine?
    TRANSAMINATION, into phenylpyruvate
  36. Intermediates of the Urea Cycle
    Carbamoyl Phosphate + Ornithine 

    •  |
    •  ⋎

    Citrulline + Aspartate

    •  |
    •  ⋎
    •  
    • Argininosuccinate

    •  |
    •  ⋎

    Fumarate + Arginine 

    • |

    Urea + Ornithine
  37. Enzymes of Urea Cycle
    • arginase
    • carbamoyl transcarbamoylase
    • ornithine transcarbamoylase 
    • argininosuccinate synthase
    • argininosuccinate
  38. Intermediate formed when Glutamate uses the enzyme glutamine synthase to become Glutamine.
    Acyl-phosphate intermediate
  39. what enzyme is used to carry ammonia by alpha-ketoglutarate to form glutamate ?
    glutamate dehydrogenase
  40. Pyrimidine enzymes to create UMP
    Aspartate transcarbamoylase 

    • |
    • v

    dihydroorotase 

    • |
    • v

    orotate reductase 

    • |
    • v

    pyrimidine phosphoribosyl transferase 

    • |
    • v

    • orotidylate 
    • decarboxylase
  41. Pyrimidine intermediates to create UMP (Uridylate)
    Carbamoyl phosphate 

    • |
    • v

    Carbamoylaspartate

    • |
    • v

    Dihydroorotate

    • |
    • v

    Orotate

    • |
    • v

    PRPP (5-Phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate)

    • |
    • v

    Orotidylate

    • |
    • v

    Uridylate (UMP)
  42. UMP is converted to UDP with what enzyme?
    -UMP kinase
  43. XDP is converted to XTP via what enzyme?
    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase
  44. UTP is converted to CTP by which enzyme?
    CTP synthase
  45. Uridylate is converted to deoxyuridylate by
    • ribonucleotide reductase
    • (NADPH,H+ --> NADP+)
  46. Thymidylate synthase intermediates
    Methylenetetrahydrofolate + Deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) = Thymidylate (TMP) + dihydrofolate
  47. Purine Biosynthesis - The Committed Step
    PRPP

    • |  Glutamine phosphoribosyl amidotransferase
    • v

    5-Phosphoribosyl-1-amino
  48. Purine Biosynthesis Intermediates for Adenylosuccinate synthase
    Inosinate + Asp --> Adenylosuccinate -> Fumarate + Adenylate(AMP)
  49. Purine Biosynthesis Intermediates for GMP synthetase
    Inosinate + NAD+ --> Xanthylate + Glu&ATP --> Guanylate (GMP)
  50. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II is regulated by....
    feed-back inhibition
  51. Ketone Bodies Intermediates
    2 Acetyl CoA 

    • |
    • v

    Acetoacetyl Coa

    • |
    • v

    3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA

    • |
    • v

    Acetoacetate

    • |
    • v

    D-3-Hydroxybutyrate + Acetone
  52. Ketone Bodies Intermediates + Enzymes
    2 Acetyl CoA 

    • |  Beta-Ketothiolase
    • v

    Acetoacetyl Coa
  53. Ketone Bodies

    Which enzyme is used when converting 

    Acetoacetyl CoA

    |
    v

    D-3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl Coa
    Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA synthase
  54. Ketone Bodies

    Which enzyme is used when converting

    D-3-Hydroxy-3-Methyl-Glutaryl Coa 

    |
    v

    Acetoacetate
    Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA cleavage enzyme
  55. Ketone Bodies

    Which enzyme is used when converting

    Acetoacetate

    |
    v

    D-3-Hydroxybutyrate
    Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase
  56. What enzyme is used when Acetoacetate is converted to Acetoacetyl CoA?
    -CoA transferase (from Succinyl CoA)
  57. Signal Transduction Pathway

    5 common steps::
    • 1. release of primary msgr
    • 2. reception
    • 3. relay of info (secondary msgr)
    • 4. actuation of msgr - physiological response
    • 5. signal termination
  58. Response to primary msgrs is alteration of activities (activation/inhibition) of ...
    • enzymes 
    • pumps 
    • gene transcription factors 
    • processes aka nerve transmission
  59. Beta-adrinergic receptor
    an example of 7TM that conveys msg of hormone (epinephrine)
  60. G protein  consists of ...
    • alpha 
    • gamma 
    • beta
  61. once G-alpha's (G protein) is active, it dissociates and binds to the target protein....
    Adenylate cyclase
  62. PKA can phosphorylate variety of proteins that can ....
    • -increase degradation of fuel molecules 
    • -increase secretion of acid in stomach
    • -open chloride channels 
    • -dispersing melanin pigments under skin
  63. Where does Beta-arrestin bind ?
    to phosphorylated receptor
  64. When G protein subunit is locked in a stable stimulatory comformation that leads to PKA to be active what does it cause?
    causes Cholera

    (caused by bacterium Vibrio cholera)
  65. when G protein is locked in OFF format by decreasing affinity to ATP it causes
    whopping cough & patient gasps for air 

    (pertussis toxin secreted by bordetella pertussis)
  66. Insulin signaling 

    An insulin receptor is a...
    homodimer that has to come close together to bind one insulin molecule by cross-phosphorylating 

    -Beta-subunit is a tyrosine kinase as opposed to PKA which is a ser/thr kinase
  67. Insulin signaling:

    extra phosphorylations allow what to happen?
    -Insulin-Receptor substrates (IRS) to bind to sites ; once proteins are bound, receptor kinase phosphorylates tyrosine residues
  68. Phosphoinositide 3 -kinase is activated when what?
    IRS proteins are phosphorylated, they'll bind to Phosphoinositide 3-kinase
  69. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase results in catalyzing the rxn..
    PIP2-->PIP3

    *PIP3 is a secondary msgr
  70. PIP3 activates third kinase called.....
    PDK1-- PIP3-dependent protein kinase
  71. PDK phosphorylates and activates the 4th kinase called...
    Akt
  72. Akt activates key metabolic proteins like the...
    GLUT4 

    --a glucose transporter that allows glucose to be imported into the cell
  73. What is insulin signal is terminated by?
    phophatases; enzymes that remove phosphate groups 4rm phosphorylated substrates.
  74. -lipid phosphatases
    -serine phosphatase
    -tyrosine phosphatase

    What do these enzymes do?
    terminate the insuling signal
  75. what does DAG(diacylglycerol) activate?
    Protein Kinase C
  76. IP3 binds to Ca++ channel and activates what?
    ER
  77. which type of diabetes do you have if you have an overproduction of insulin (stressing b-cells and cause them to undergo apoptosis causing pancreatic failure) ?
    type-2
  78. type 1 diabetes happens when....
    an autoimmune disease destorys b-cells
  79. Bad lipoproteins
    • Chylomicrons-worst
    • VLDL
    • IDL 
    • LDL
  80. good lipoprotein
    HDL; high-density lipoprotein
  81. Immediately, type-1 diabetes have to find another source of energy so it undergoes...
    gluconeogenesis, then b-oxidation b/c overproduction of acetyl-coa overwhelms TCA cycle.
  82. Ethanol will convert to acetaldehyde producing...
    NADH

    enzyme used : alcohol dehydrogenase
  83. Acetaldehyde converts to acetate producing...
    more NADH.

    enzyme used acetaldehyde dehydrogenase
  84. fatty acid oxidation is inhibited by NADH....
    it uses NAD & FAD
  85. what does Glutathione peroxidase do?
    an enzyme that clear peroxides from the system.
  86. Ethanol consumption oxidizes ethanol consumption therefore,
    it MUST regenerate by reduction using the glutathione reductase enzyme.
  87. Which of the following serves as the primary direct donor of activated ribose groups for nucleotide biosynthesis?
    5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP)
  88. In the urea cycle, the carbon skeleton of aspartate is preserved as
    fumarate
  89. If malic enzyme is deficient then
    fatty acid synthesis is inhibited
  90. The nitrogen sources for the pyrimidine skeleton are
    aspartate and free ammonia from glutamate deamination
  91. The original nitrogen source for nitrogen found in amino acids is
    atmospheric nitrogen

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