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Method of Comparison
Statisticians use methods of comparisons. They want to know the effect of a response of a treatment (Vaccine) on a response (like getting herpes).
Treatment Group vs Control Group
Treatment group gets treatment
Controlled get nothing
Usually it is hard to compare the effect of a treatment without comparing it without something else
If treatment group improve against control group who didn't the response is likely due to the treatment
if treatment group is comparable to controlled group look for confounding factors
to make sure control group is like treatment investigators put subjects into treatment or controlled groups at random (randomized controlled experiments).
Double Blind experiment
The subject do not know whether they are in the treatment or controlled group. Neither do they who evaluate the responses.
This guards against bias either in the response or in the evaluation