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A chronic, progressive neurological disease. It is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the brain and spinal cord
A progressive, degenerative neurological disorder identified by: -the presence of Lewy Bodies -death or impairment in cells of the substantia nigra
Scars form on the neurons in BOTH the upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron pathways. Degeneration of these motor neurons leads to progressive atrophy of muscles (LMN…usually beginning with the small muscles of the hands and feet. Degeneration of UMN pathways leads to spasticity & stiffness. Also degeneration of pathways leading to deficits in speech, swallow and respiration.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Hyperactivity of basal ganglia due to selective degeneration of neurons that deal with toxins/ oxidants. Anti oxidant abilities diminished leading to loss of control of both voluntary and involuntary movements. TOO much movement.
Huntingtons Chorea (HD)
Etiology: Unknown, BUT there are several theories that have been cited….. Myelin damage is most likely due to an AUTOIMMUNE DISORDER, which is linked to a…GENETIC FACTOR – there are hereditary factors that make some people more susceptible. No evidence that it is directly inherited. VIRUS … T – lymphocytes (T-cells) mistake the myelin for something foreign and destroy it. Multifactorial- Enrviron.
Etiology: In most cases it is considered IDIOPATHIC. Cause of cell death is unknown in most cases Cause likely includes both genetic & environmental factors Genetics…15-25% of it pt’s have a relative with it. Scientists have discovered several “these” …appears to be 2-3X increased risk of it in first degree relatives Environmental Factors – there are several toxins that can cause these-like symptoms.
Scientists suggest exposure to an as-yet unidentified toxin or chemical in the food, air or water may cause this in a person with a genetic vulnerability to that chemical
10% of all forms are inherited – transmitted on a dominant gene. FAMILIAL type. Cause of remaining 90% is unknown. SPORADIC type. Theories include: Specific slow acting viruses toxins from exposure to heavy metals Autoimmune deficiency Mineral def.
Autosomal Dominant of replication/ mutation of gene on 4th chromosome. If inherit gene then get disease and pass on disease.
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