Cardiovascular

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Author:
Omurbek
ID:
306508
Filename:
Cardiovascular
Updated:
2015-08-18 07:23:27
Tags:
Cardiovascular
Folders:
Embriology
Description:
Embriology
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  1. Truncus arteriosus gives rise to
    Ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
  2. Bulbus cordis GIvES RISE TO
    Smooth parts (out社ow tract) of left and right ventricles
  3. Primitive atrium GIvES RISE TO
    Trabeculated part of left and right atria
  4. Primitive ventricle GIvES RISE TO
    Trabeculated part of left and right ventricles
  5. Primitive pulmonary vein GIvES RISE TO
    Smooth part of left atrium
  6. Left horn of sinus venosus GIvES RISE TO
    Coronary sinus
  7. Right horn of sinus venosus GIvES RISE TO
    Smooth part of right atrium (sinus venarum)
  8. Right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein GIvES RISE TO
    Superior vena cava (SVC)
  9. First functional organ in vertebrate embryos
    Heart morphogenesis
  10. Heart beats spontaneously by week -- of development
    4
  11. Cardiac looping
    • Primary heart tube loops to establish left-right polarity;
    • begins in week 4 of gestation.
  12. Defect in left-right dynein (involved in L/R asymmetry) can lead to dextrocardia, as seen in ----- syndrome (primary ciliary dyskinesia).
    Kartagener syndrome (primary ciliary dyskinesia).
  13. Ventricular septal defect (VSD)—most commonly occurs in the --- septum
    membranous septum.
  14. Outflow tract formation
    Truncus arteriosus rotates; neural crest and endocardial cell migrations * truncal and bulbar ridges that spiral and fuse to form aorticopulmonary septum * ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk.
  15. Outflow tract formation. Conotruncal abnormalities
    • Transposition of great vessels.
    • Tetralogy of Fallot. 
    • Persistent truncus arteriosus.
  16. Valve development Aortic/pulmonary: derived from
    endocardial cushions of outfow tract.
  17. Valve development Mitral/tricuspid: derived from
    fused endocardial cushions of the AV canal.
  18. Valvular anomalies may be stenotic, ---
    stenotic, regurgitant, atretic (e.g., tricuspid atresia), or displaced (e.g., Ebstein anomaly).
  19. Fetal erythropoiesis occurs in:
    • Yolk sac (3–8 weeks)
    • Liver (6 weeks–birth)
    • Spleen (10–28 weeks)
    • Bone marrow (18 weeks to adult)
  20. Fetal erythropoiesis occurs in: Yolk sac (--weeks)
    3-8
  21. Fetal erythropoiesis occurs in: Liver
    6 weeks - birth
  22. Fetal erythropoiesis occurs in: Spleen (-- weeks)
    10-28 weeks
  23. Fetal erythropoiesis occurs in: Bone marrow (---weeks)
    18 weeks to adult
  24. Hemoglobin development shot
    Alpha Always; Gamma Goes, Becomes Beta.
  25. Embryonic globins
    ζ and ε.
  26. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) =
    • α2γ2
    • alpha + gamma
  27. Adult hemoglobin (HbA1) =
    α2β2.
  28. Blood in umbilical vein has a Po2 of ≈ -- mmHg and is ≈ -- % saturated with O2.
    • Po2 of ≈ 30 mmHg
    •  ≈ 80% saturated with O2.
    • Umbilical arteries have low O2 saturation.
  29. Fetal circulation. 3 important shunts:
    • ductus venosus
    • foramen ovale
    • patent ductus arteriosus
  30. At birth, infant takes a breath / --- / ; foramen ovale closes (now called fossa ovalis);
    dec resistance in pulmonary vasculature * inc left atrial pressure vs. right atrial pressure
  31. At birth, infant takes a breath; ---  * closure of ductus arteriosus.
    inc in O2 (from respiration) and dec in prostaglandins (from placental separation)
  32. --- helps close PDA
    indomethacin
  33. remnant of ductus arteriosus
    ligamentum arteriosum
  34. Prostaglandins E1 and E2 * ---
    kEEp PDA open.
  35. Fetal-postnatal derivatives
    nucleus pulposus
    notochord
  36. Fetal-postnatal derivatives
    umbilical arteries
    medial umbilical ligaments
  37. Fetal-postnatal derivatives
    median umbilical ligament
    allantois * urachus
  38. Fetal-postnatal derivatives
    umbilical vien
    • ligamentum teres hepatis
    • contains in falciform ligament
  39. Urachus is part of --- duct between --- and ---
    Urachus is part of allantoic duct between bladder and umbilicus.
  40. Right-dominant circulation = -- %, left = --%, codominant = --%
    Right-dominant circulation = 85% = PDA arises from RCA.Left-dominant circulation = 8% = PDA arises from LCX.Codominant circulation = 7% = PDA arises from both LCX and RCA.
  41. Coronary artery occlusion most commonly occurs in the ---
    LAD.
  42. Coronary blood flow peaks in
    early diastole

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