Card Set Information
Truncus arteriosus gives rise to
Ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk
Bulbus cordis GIvES RISE TO
Smooth parts (out社ow tract) of left and right ventricles
Primitive atrium GIvES RISE TO
Trabeculated part of left and right atria
Primitive ventricle GIvES RISE TO
Trabeculated part of left and right ventricles
Primitive pulmonary vein GIvES RISE TO
Smooth part of left atrium
Left horn of sinus venosus GIvES RISE TO
Right horn of sinus venosus GIvES RISE TO
Smooth part of right atrium (sinus venarum)
Right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein GIvES RISE TO
Superior vena cava (SVC)
First functional organ in vertebrate embryos
Heart beats spontaneously by week -- of development
Primary heart tube loops to establish left-right polarity;
begins in week 4 of gestation.
Defect in left-right dynein (involved in L/R asymmetry) can lead to dextrocardia, as seen in ----- syndrome (primary ciliary dyskinesia).
Kartagener syndrome (primary ciliary dyskinesia).
Ventricular septal defect (VSD)—most commonly occurs in the --- septum
Outflow tract formation
Truncus arteriosus rotates; neural crest and endocardial cell migrations * truncal and bulbar ridges that spiral and fuse to form aorticopulmonary septum * ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk.
Outflow tract formation. Conotruncal abnormalities
Transposition of great vessels.
Tetralogy of Fallot.
Persistent truncus arteriosus.
Valve development Aortic/pulmonary: derived from
endocardial cushions of outfow tract.
Valve development Mitral/tricuspid: derived from
fused endocardial cushions of the AV canal.
Valvular anomalies may be stenotic, ---
stenotic, regurgitant, atretic (e.g., tricuspid atresia), or displaced (e.g., Ebstein anomaly).
Fetal erythropoiesis occurs in:
Yolk sac (3–8 weeks)
Liver (6 weeks–birth)
Spleen (10–28 weeks)
Bone marrow (18 weeks to adult)
Fetal erythropoiesis occurs in: Yolk sac (--weeks)
Fetal erythropoiesis occurs in: Liver
6 weeks - birth
Fetal erythropoiesis occurs in: Spleen (-- weeks)
Fetal erythropoiesis occurs in: Bone marrow (---weeks)
18 weeks to adult
Hemoglobin development shot
Alpha Always; Gamma Goes, Becomes Beta.
ζ and ε.
Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) =
alpha + gamma
Adult hemoglobin (HbA1) =
Blood in umbilical vein has a Po2 of ≈ -- mmHg and is ≈ -- % saturated with O2.
Po2 of ≈ 30 mmHg
≈ 80% saturated with O2.
Umbilical arteries have low O2 saturation.
Fetal circulation. 3 important shunts:
patent ductus arteriosus
At birth, infant takes a breath / --- / ; foramen ovale closes (now called fossa ovalis);
dec resistance in pulmonary vasculature * inc left atrial pressure vs. right atrial pressure
At birth, infant takes a breath; --- * closure of ductus arteriosus.
inc in O2 (from respiration) and dec in prostaglandins (from placental separation)
--- helps close PDA
remnant of ductus arteriosus
Prostaglandins E1 and E2 * ---
kEEp PDA open.
medial umbilical ligaments
median umbilical ligament
allantois * urachus
ligamentum teres hepatis
contains in falciform ligament
Urachus is part of --- duct between --- and ---
Urachus is part of allantoic duct between bladder and umbilicus.
Right-dominant circulation = -- %, left = --%, codominant = --%
Right-dominant circulation = 85% = PDA arises from RCA.Left-dominant circulation = 8% = PDA arises from LCX.Codominant circulation = 7% = PDA arises from both LCX and RCA.
Coronary artery occlusion most commonly occurs in the ---
Coronary blood flow peaks in