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-to prevent contact with blood and other potentially infectious material
- *avoid contact with patient's bodily fluids
- *medical instruments should be handled carefully and disposed of properly
- *proper handwashing
- *consider ALL patients infectious
Universal precautions should be practiced in any environment where workers are exposed to bodily fluids, such as:
- -vaginal secretions
- -synovial fluid
- -amniotic fluid
- -pleural fluid
- -peritoneal fluid
- -pericardial fluid
Bodily fluids that DO NOT require special precautions:
- -nasal secretions
- -saliva (if not contaminated with blood)
- -apply to all patients receiving care in the hospital, regardless of their diagnosis or presumed infectious status.
- -designed to reduce the risk of transmitting microorganisms from both recognized or unrecognized sources of infection in the hospital.
Standard precautions apply to:
- -ALL BODY FLUIDS, secretions/excretions, regardless whether or not visible blood is present.
- -non-intact skin
- -mucous membrane
LEVELS OF PREVENTIVE CARE:
- 1. PRIMARY PREVENTION:
- -TRUE PREVENTION.
- -applied to clients physically and emotionally healthy.
- -aims at HEALTH PROMOTION and includes immunization, health education, and physical and nutritional fitness.
- 2. SECONDARY PREVENTION:
- -individuals who are experiencing health problems or illnesses and who are at risk of developing complications or worsening of illness.
- -reduce severity and enabling the pt to return to a normal level of health as early as possible.
- 3. TERTIARY PREVENTION:
- -occurs when a disability or defect becomes permanent and irreversible. Minimize the effects of long term dse or disability through interventions of preventing complications and deterioration.