Block I week 2

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Block I week 2
2015-08-26 22:25:55

Block I week 2 thorax
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  1. Demonstrate on isolated heart features to determine caudal/cranial, medial/lateral, dorsal/ventral.  Position as if in body
    • R ventrical is ventral, aorta runs dorsal and down, VC runs down ventral to aorta through right side of diaphragm.
    • Pulmonary trunk lies between the auricles (on the left lateral side of body), receives blood from the right ventricle.
  2. Explain the mechanism of valve opening and closing in relation to the cardiac cycle and the sounds produced.  Compare and contrast the morphological features of the right and left AV valves with the pulmonic and aortic arteries
  3. Explain the reasons for the various thicknesses associated with specific chamber walls as well as with the walls of great vessels coming to and leaving the heart.  Specifically explain why the walls of the pulmonary arteries and veins do not differ significantly in thickness
  4. Explain what is meant by structural and funcitonal blood supplies of an organ, utilize the heart as an example
  5. name and demonstrate the veins that bring blood direclty to the heart and the area each drains
    Caudal and cranial vena cava, azygous (dorsal body wall), great cardiac vein (heart muscle), pulmonary vein (lungs)
  6. name and demonstrate the arteries that take blood away from the heart and describe the area that each of these arteries is ultimately delivering blood to through it's many branches
    aorta and pulmonary artery (lungs)
  7. In one or two sentences each, describe and name the unique features of each of the four chambers of the heart
  8. draw the relationship between the heart, pericardial cavity and mediastinum
  9. make a diagram of heart indicating direction of blood flow.  Include chambers, valves, arteries, veins
  10. Identify all tubular organs associated with the hilus of an isolated lung, and describe how each has a role in oxygenation of the body. On a lateral radiograph and on CT of thorax, ID these structures and relate them to oxygenation of the body.
  11. Demonstrate the following structures (or at least the position of these structures!) that are adult remnants of structures that were crucial to fetal circulation: ligamentum arteriosum, fossa ovalis, valve of the foramen ovale
  12. Know which structures are located in the different parts of the mediastinum and identify them. If they are not discernable during imaging, then surmise their location based on known proximity to other structures.
    Thymus, trachea, esophagus, vena cavae, aorta, heart, azygous,
  13. carina
    ridge of tissue where bronchi split
  14. On radiographs and CT, identify the following structures or location of those structures: all lung lobes, trachea, esophagus, lymph nodes (cranial-mediastinal, sternal, and tracheobronchial), and thymus
  15. Discuss the function and structure of the epithelial linings of the respiratory tract
    • Nares there are hairs in the cutaneous tissue to filter air.  Epithelium becomes respiratory, which is pseudostratified and has cilia and mucus-producing goblet cells, trapping particles in mucus then beating it up to pharynx.  
    • Conchae are covered in olfactory epithelium which gives the sense of smell.  
    • Epiglottis and vocal cords have stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium.  
    • Trachea and bronchi have respiratory epithelium.  
    • Bronchioles transition from pseudostratified into simple ciliated columnar and then simple ciliated cuboidal.  Lining is replaced by Clara cells, goblet cells eventually stop and so do cilia.  
    • Alveoli are made of 2 types of pneumocytes, cuboidal.  Type II secretes surfactant to lower surface tension and Type I are very thin to allow gas diffusion.
  16. Understand the composition of the tubular organs of the respiratory tract and how its linings change from the nares to the bronchioles in order to perform specific functions.
    • Tubular organs of the respiratory tract are non-vascular, so 4 tunics: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and adventitia.  
    • Trachea and bronchi: tunica mucosa is pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells and thick basement membrane
    • Epiglottis and vocal cords have stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium.  
    • Bronchioles transition from pseudostratified into simple ciliated columnar and then simple ciliated cuboidal.  Lining is replaced by Clara cells, goblet cells eventually stop and so do cilia.  
    • Alveoli are made of 2 types of pneumocytes, cuboidal.  Type II secretes surfactant to lower surface tension and Type I are very thin to allow gas diffusion.
  17. Discuss structures and functions of the cells that comprise the alveolar wall
    The alveolar wall is comprised of simple epithelium, a thin layer of connective tissue with elastic and reticular collagen fibers and a plexus of capillaries.  It is made of alveoli arranged in a tube to form alveolar ducts.  These line up with capillaries that force blood cells to go by one at a time.  Gas diffuses across the pneumocytes and across its concentration gradient.
  18. Discuss the composition of the gas exchange barrier in the alveoli at the level of transmission electron microscopy and be able to trace the movement of the oxygen from the alveolar lumen to the cytoplasm of a RBC, as well as the reverse movement of CO2
    Alveolar ducts are big tubes of alveoli.  The alveoli are composed of pneumocytes that facilitate diffusion of gasses.  The capillaries are extremely thin and run right up against these pneumocytes, allowing O2 and CO2 to transfer via diffusion down their concentration gradient.
  19. heart, locate and describe: auricles, auricular surface, atrial surface, intraventricular groove, intervenous tubercle, coronary sinus, pectinate muscles, ligamentum arteriosum, papillary muscles, chordae tendinae, traveculae carneae, conus arteriosus, foramen ovale (and valve), sinus of the aorta
    • auricles: flaps (blind pouches with pectinate muscles) on the external surface on either side of pulmonary trunk.
    • auricular surface: left lateral side of heart, right ventrical side
    • atrial surface: right lateral side of heart
    • intraventricular groove: groove on either side of heart, where veins feeding into great cardiac
    • intervenous tubercle: crest that diverts blood in right atrium from large vessels from sloshing, and directs toward ventricle.  
    • coronary sinus: opening for the venous return of great coronary vein
    • Pectinate muscles: muscular bands on right auricle
    • ligamentum arteriosum: cord-like structure between pulmonary trunk and aorta, remains of ductus arteriosus
    • papillary muscles/chordae tendinae: extend from ventricular walls, attach to chordae tendinae to keep valves from everting.
    • trabeculae carneae: irregularities of right ventricular wall
    • conus arteriosus: narrow outflow track of right ventrical, leads to pulmonary valve
    • foramen ovale: where fetal blood was shunted from right atrium to left atrium.  In wall between, depression called fossa ovalis.  Had a valve.
    • sinus of the aorta: dilation at ascending aorta distal to cusps of valve where coronary arteries branch off
  20. structural vs functional blood supply
    • structural is blood supply and drainage to organ itself.  
    • Functional is the blood with in the chambers is used to fulfil the heart's function
  21. systole vs diastole
    contraction vs relaxation stages of the heart.
  22. using vessels located in thorax, be able to draw and label a transverse section through an elastic and muscular artery (light microscope)
  23. Compare and contrast structure, function and distribution of elastic and muscular arteries within the thorax
  24. Name four different mechanisms by which tubes arise and give an example of each within the thorax
  25. Draw and label (light microscope) a transverse section through the thoracic portion of the esophagus to demonstrate a non-vascular tube
  26. Compare and contrast the structural modifications of the trachea and esophagus that allow each to perform its function as a conduit.
    • lamina epithelius of tunica mucosa: esophagus has a stratified squamous protective, trachea has respiratory epithelium (ciliated pseudostratified columnar with goblet cells and thick basement)
    • lamina muscularis mucosa of tunica mucosa: trachea doesn't have one, substitutes elastic fibers.  Esophagus has smooth muscle for moving ingesta,  
    • Tunica submucosa: esophagus has submucosal glands to lubricate
    • tunica muscularis: esophagus has a strong layer of smooth or skeletal, trachea has trachealis dorsally and hyaline cartilage
  27. For tubular organs that enter or traverse the thorax, be able to provide a diagnostic procedure that can evaluate them.
    • trachea: speculum or scope, imaging for shape, biopsy, external palpation
    • esophagus: speculum or scope, some imaging?  External palpation
    • heart: imaging (echo, rads, contrast, CT, biopsy), external ascultation
    • Vessels (veins and arteries): ultrasound, possibly scope/imaging