Chem 2: Lecture 3

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dante01
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306723
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Chem 2: Lecture 3
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2015-09-13 20:33:26
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Chemistry
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  1. Matter
    Anything that occupies space and has mass
  2. SI unit of Mass
    Kg
  3. Mass
    amount of matter in an object
  4. Volume
    • –amount of space a substance occupies
    • –can be calculated by measuring the sides of a cube or rectangular side, then multiplying them
    • Volume = length ×width ×height
  5. SI units of Volume
    cm^3 or mL
  6. Weight
    effect of gravity on an object.
  7. Temperature
    measure of the intensity of thermal energy of a system (i.e. how hot or cold)
  8. Heat
    • -flow of energy due to a temperature difference.
    • -Heat flows from regions of higher to lower temperature
  9. SI unit of heat
    Kelvin (K)
  10. Different Temperature Scales (Freezing and Boiling point)
    • 1. Celsius
    • Freezing Point: 0 C
    • Boiling Point: 100 C

    • 2. Fahrenheit
    • Freezing Point:32 F
    • Boiling Point: 212 F

    • 3. Kelvin
    • Freezing Point: 273.15 K
    • Boiling Point: 373.15 K
  11. Density
    • -the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume occupied by that mass
    • -a physical property of a substance
    • - D = M/V
  12. SI unit of density
    g/mL or g/cm^3
  13. Thermal Energy
    A form of energy involving the motion of small particles of matter
  14. Energy
    the capacity to move an object or to transfer heat
  15. Chemistry
    The study of matter and energy
  16. One way to classify matter is by its _________
    chemical composition
  17. Pure substance
    • -has a definite, fixed composition and is either an element or a compound.
    • -cannot be separated into components by physical means
    • -Rare in the world, most things are mixtures
    • -Ex. Aluminum in soda can
    • -Ex. The sugar on the spoon and the water in the beaker are each a pure substance –both are compounds
  18. Mixture
    • -Consists of two or more pure substances and may vary in composition
    • -Ex. Fountain, mixture of gravel, concrete and pebbles
  19. Two types of pure substances
    • 1. Elements 
    • 2. Compunds
  20. Element
    • - A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances even by a chemical reaction 
    • -Building blocks of all matter
  21. Of the 114 elements, how many can be found in natural substances and in sufficient quantity to isolate?
    83
  22. Periodic Table
    • -use to classify elements
    • -organized by properties
  23. Elements are generally classified into two main categories:
    • 1. Metals
    • 2. Non-metals
  24. Metal
    • •solids at room temperature (except mercury)
    • •shiny
    • •good conductors of heat and electricity
    • •malleable(can be shaped)
    • •ductile (can be drawn into wires)
    • •Most metals have a high melting point and density.
    • Ex. Copper, aluminum, iron
  25. Non-metal
    • •not shiny
    • •have fairly low melting points and densities
    • •are poor conductors of heat and electricity
    • •Nonmetals combine with each other to form molecular compounds and with metals to form ionic compounds.
  26. Metalloids
    - Exhibit a mixture of metallic and non-metallic properties

  27. Element symbol
    • - a shorthand version of an element's longer name
    • -often one or two letters
  28. Classify each of the following as an element, compound or mixture
  29. Electrolysis
    -chemical process in which water, H2O, can be broken down
  30. Molecules are the smallest unchanged individual unit of a:
    Compound
  31. When 2 or more atoms react they form:
    Molecules
  32. Compound
    • -a substance composed of two or more elements combined in definite proportions. 
    • -has properties different from those of its component elements. (Iron pyrite is not magnetic like Iron)
    • -Ex. Sand (silicon and oxygen)
  33. Chemical Formula
    -Describes the composition of a compound, using the symbols for the elements in the compound
  34. Phase
    • -a homogeneous part of a system separated from other parts by a physical boundary
    • -Ice floating in water is a two phase system.Each phase is homogeneous but the overall system is heterogeneous.
  35. Homogeneous mixture
    • - a combination of two or more substances that has uniform composition throughout
    • -Ex. Sugar dissolved in water
  36. Solution
    • -A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed at a molecular or or ionic level
    • -Not all are liquids
    • -Ex. Filtered Air
    • -Alloys (solid solutions)
    • -Ex. Brass (zinc and copper)
  37. Separation of Mixtures
    • -The components of a mixture do not lose their identities and may be separated by physical means such as: boiling, filtration, floatation, magnetism
    • -Ex. Sulfur and iron can be separated using a magnet.
  38. Matter Chart
  39. Heterogeneous mixture
    • -a combination of two or more substances that is not uniform throughout 
    • -Ex. oil and water
  40. Which of the following is a heterogeneous mixture?
    a. baking soda
    b. gasoline
    c. grape juice
    d. copper metal
    e. soil
    soil
  41. Which of the following is a homogeneous mixture?
    a. carbon dioxide
    b. mercury
    c. maple syrup
    d. concrete
    e. italian salad dressing
    maple syrup
  42. Filtration is a common method to separate components of what type of mixture?
    A. homogeneous mixture of 2 liquids
    B. homogeneous mixture of solid in liquid
    C. heterogeneous mixture of 2 liquids
    D. heterogeneous mixture of solid in liquid
    D. heterogeneous mixture of solid in liquid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Salt being separated by evaporation
    • •Salt water is a mixture.
    • •Salt and water can be separated by the process of evaporation, which is physical process.
  44. Classify each of the following mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous:
    –Salt water
    –Lake water
    –Tap water
    –Air
    –Brass (an alloy of Cu and Zn)
    –Potting soil
    –Cake mix
    • –Salt water: Homo
    • –Lake water: Homo
    • –Tap water: Homo
    • –Air: Homo
    • –Brass (an alloy of Cu and Zn): Homo
    • –Potting soil: Heter
    • –Cake mix: Heter
  45. Which can be physically separated; Pure substance or Mixture?
    Mixture
  46. Can elements be decomposed chemically?
    No, but compounds can
  47. Atom
    the smallest unit of an element that has the chemical properties of that element
  48. Matter Classification chart
  49. Identify the Nonmetals


  50. Molecule
    Two or more atoms bound together in a discrete arrangement
  51. Physical state
    • a form that matter can take
    • -solid, liquid, gas
  52. Solid state of carbon dioxide
    • dry ice
    • -converts at very low temp
  53. -The most common solids are
    crystalline and have regular,repeating three-dimensional geometric patterns
  54. amorphous solids
    • -without shape or form
    • -do not have the high order
    • -as plastics, glass and gels do not have regular, internal geometric patterns
  55. Solid
    • -Fixed shape
    • -particles are packed tight
    • -volume which can be independent of its container
  56. Liquid
    • -no fixed shape
    • -definite volume
    • -particles free move
    • -can be poured
  57. Attractive forces are
    • -hold the particles together and give matter its appearance of continuity
    • •strongest in solids, giving them rigidity
    • •weaker in liquids but strong enough to maintain definite volumes
    • •weakest in gases, allowing them to behave nearly independently.
  58. Gas
    • -no fixed shape
    • -indefinite volume
    • -takes shape of container
    • -particles are widely separated
    • -can be compressed or expanded
  59. Aqueous solution
    a solution in which a substance is dissolved in water
  60. Physical property
    • -a characteristic that we observe without changing the composition of a substance
    • -affect the appearance only
    • -Ex. Color, Odor, taste, state of matter, melting and boiling point
    • -Qualitative: Mass, Volume
    • -Quantitative: Density, Temperature
  61. Chemical Property
    • -describe the ability of a substance to:
    • 1) undergo a reaction with another substance
    • 2) to decompose
  62. Physical changes are:
    • -changes in state of matter without a change in composition
    • - a process that changes the physical properties of a substance without changing its chemical composition
    • -Examples are changes in size and density
    • -no new substances are formed
  63. Evidence of a physical change includes:
    • - a change of state
    • Ex. water changes from a solid to a gas
    • -an expected change in color
  64. Physical State Transitions
  65. Do the following molecular-level images represent a chemical change or physical change?
    -Physical change (sublimation)
  66. Classify each of the following as a physical or chemical change:

    -Evaporation of Water
    -Burning of natural gas
    -Melting a metal
    -Converting H2 and O2 to H2O
    • -Evaporation of Water               Physical
    • -Burning of natural gas             chemical
    • -Melting a metal                       physical
    • -Converting H2 and O2 to H2O   chemical
  67. Chemical change
    • - a process where one or more substances are converted into one or more new substances (chemical reaction)
    • - new substances are formed that have different properties and composition from the original material
    • -Ex:
    • -Pennies tarnishing
    • -Burning gasoline
    • -the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to form water
  68. Chemical properties
    • -descriptions of the ability of a substance to undergo a chemical change
    • -Ex: 
    • -Hydrogen burns easily with oxygen
    • -Helium is unreactive
    • -Iron rusts
    • -silver tarnishes
    • -Gold is very unreactive
  69. Evidence of a chemical change includes:
    • -gas produced (bubbling or odor)
    • -a permanent color change
    • -a sudden change in temperature (heat released or absorbed)
    • -light is given off
    • -precipitate (solid) is formed
  70. Is boiling water a chemical or physical change?
    • - physical change
    • -because the water vapor still has the same molecular structure as liquid water (H 2O
  71. Do the following molecular-level images represent a chemical change or a physical change? 
    chemical change
  72. Physical or chemical change

    -Rusting of iron
    -Boiling of water
    -Burning of sulfur in air
    -Boiling of an egg
    -Combustion of gasoline
    -Digestion of food
    -Sawing of wood
    -Burning of wood
    -Heating of glass
    • -Rusting of iron                 chemical
    • -Boiling of water               physical
    • -Burning of sulfur in air     chemical
    • -Boiling of an egg             chemical
    • -Combustion of gasoline   chemical
    • -Digestion of food            chemical
    • -Sawing of wood              physical
    • -Burning of wood            chemical
    • -Heating of glass             chemical
  73. Which of the following is a physical change?
    A. grinding a rock into powder
    B. hydrogen and oxygen reacting to form water
    C. a shovel rusting
    D. burning sugar
    E. an acid and base reacting to form water
    A. grinding a rock into powder
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. Which of the following is a chemical change?
    A. breaking a plate
    B. putting sugar in tea
    C. melting aspirin
    D. lighting a match
    E. boiling antifreeze
    D. lightning a match
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. Energy
    - the capacity to do work or to transfer heat
  76. Kinetic energy
    the energy of motion
  77. Potential energy
    energy possessed by an object because of its position
  78. Thermal energy
    a form of energy involving the motion of small particles of matter
  79. Temperature
    measure of the intensity of thermal energy of a system (how hot or cold)
  80. Heat
    • - flow of energy due to temperature difference.
    • -Heat flows from regions of higher to lower temperature
  81. What is the SI unit of temperature?
    - Kelvin (K)
  82. How is temperature measured?
    Thermometer
  83. SI unit for energy
    Joule (J)
  84. The amount of energy required to change the temperature of 1g of water by 1C is:
    4.184 J
  85. Specific heat
    - the amount of heat (gained or lost) required to change the temperature of 1g of the material by 1C
  86. Heat formula
  87. Specific heat formula

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