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LEPTOSPIROSIS/ WEIL'S DISEASE/ CANICOLA FEVER/ HEMORRHAGIC JAUNDICE/ MUD FEVER/ SWINE HERD DISEASE
- a zoonotic infectious bacterial disease carried out by animals (domestic and wild).
- infected URINE contaminates water or food.
- ingested or inoculated through the skin.
- genus LEPTOPSPIRA (leptopira interrogans)
- -aquatic organism, found in the river and lake waters, sewage and in the sea.
- -Weil's disease is caused by the serovar icterohemorrhagiae
Leptospira is found in the URINE bet 10-20 days after disease onset.
SOURCE OF INFECTION:
- ☐ contaminated food and water.
- ☐ infected wildlife and domestic animals (esp rodents).
- 1. RATS (L. icrteroheamorrhagiae): source of Weil's disease: observed among mine, sewer and abattoir workers.RATS (L. bataviae): attacks ricefield workers.2. DOGS (L. canicola): veterinarians, breeder of dogs.
- 3. MICE (L. grippotyphosa): farmers and flax workers.
transmitted through: INGESTION or CONTACT with skin/mucus membrane (eyes, nose and mouth and through break of the skin) of infected urines or carcasses of either wild or domestic animals.
- LEPTOSPIRA:-enters the blood to cause damage. and thereafter to the kidneys, liver, meninges and conjunctivae.
- -can be transmitted by SEMEN of an infected animal
- ☐ occupation at risk: veterinarians, slaughter house workers, farmers and sewer workers.
- ☐ human-to-human transmission is RARE.
- ☐ range: asymptomatic to fatal.
- ☐ three septic stages:
- 1. SEPTIC STAGE:
- -febrile for 4-7 days.
- -sudden onset of remittent fever, chills, headache, anorexia, abdominal pain, and severe prostration (physical and mental exhaustion).
- -resp distress; fever subsides with lysis.
- 2. IMMUNE or TOXIC STAGE:-with or without jaundice.
- -lasts 4-30 days.
- (+) iritis, headache, meningeal manifestation (disorientation and convulsion), with CSF finding of aseptic meningitis.
- (+) oliguria, anuria with progressive renal failure
- (+) shock, coma, and congestive HF (severe cases); death: may occur bet the 9th and 16th day.
- 3. CONVALESCENCE:-relapse may occur during the 4th and 5th weeks.
- ↦ BUN and CREA
- ↦ ELISA
- ↦ liver fxn test: AST, ALT, GGT
- ↦ leptospira antigen-antibody test
- ↦ leptospira antibody test
ORGANS OF THE BODY INVADED BY THE ORGANISM:
- -LIVER> jaundice
- -KIDNEYS> renal failure
- -MUSCLES> pain and edema (sometimes)
- -EYES> conjunctivitis, orange-colored sclera
- resp distress
- renal interstitial tubular necrosis, resulting in RF (Weil's disease)
- cardio problem
- *suppress causative agent.
- *fight possible cx.
- *AETIOTROPIC DRUGS: penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and doxycycline (prophylaxis: 100m.g p.o q 12 hrs for 1 week).*peritoneal dialysis
- *give f&e and blood
- -ISOLATE pt: dispose urine properly!
- -darken pt's room
- -pruritus: skin care
- -encourage OFI.
- -sanitation: homes, workplace and farms
- -proper drainage and control of rodents.
- -vaccinate animals (cattle, dogs, cats and pigs)
- -tx infected animals and humans.