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What are the fluid body compartments?
Intracellular and extracellular
How much of TBW is IFC?
How much TWB id ECF?
What separates the ICF and ECF?
a cell membrane
How is EFC divided?
Plasma and interstitial fluid
What is plasma?
The fluid that circulates in the blood vessels
What is interstitial fluid?
Fluid that bathes the cells
Which of interstitial fluid and plasma is larger?
What separates plasma and interstitial fluid?
What is principle of macroscopic electroneutrality?
each compartment must have the same concentration of cations/anions
What is the major cation for ECF?
What is the major cation for ICF?
K+ and Mg2+
Which is more acidic of IFC and EFC?
What are transporter mechanisms? Most common?
- transport Na+ fro IFC to EFC and sim transports K+ from EFC to IFC
- Na+-K+ pump
What do transporter mech require?
What are the 4 physiological functions of IFC and EFC?
- 1. RMP of nerve/muscle depends on diff in concentration of K+
- 2. Upstroke of AP depends on diff in Na+
- 3. Excitation-contraction coupling in muscle cells depends on diff in Ca+ conc across CM and memb of sarcoplasmic reticulum
- 4. Abs of essential nutrients depends on transmembrane Na+ conc gradient
What is Gibbs-Donnan equil?
plasma proteins neg charges -> redistrib of cations/anions across cap wall
What is the Gibbs-Donna ratio?
the small concentration diff for permeant ion
What are the 2 main components of the cell membrane?
lipids and proteins
What is the water soluble lipid part?
hydrophilic glycerol backbone
What is the water insoluble lipid part?
hydrophobic fatty acid tail
What forms the lipid bilayer in the phospholipid compartment of the cell?
What are the parts of the protein compartments of the cell?
- integral membrane proteins
- peripheral membrane proteins
What are integral membrane proteins?
embedded and anchored by hydrophobic interactions
What are the peripheral membrane proteins?
loosely attached by electrostatic interactions
Transmembrane proteins are in contact with what? Apart of which proteins membrane?
- both IFC and EFC by spanning the lipid bilayer
Downhill transport occur? Requires what?
- By diffusion (simple or facilitated)
- no energy
Uphill transport occurs? Requires what?
- By active transport (primary or secondary)
- requires energy
Of 1o and 2o which requires direct and indirect metabolic energy?
- 1o direct input of metabolic energy
- 2o indirect input of metabolic energy
Which type of diffusion is not protein carrier mediated?
What all are carrier-mediated transport?
facilitated diffusion, 1o active transport and 2o active transport
Carrier-mediated transport share which features?
saturation, sterospecificity, and competition
What is saturation?
amt of binding sites
What happens at low and high concentration levels?
- low- ^binding sites/rate of trans
- high- ∨binding sites/rate of trans
What is competition in transport across membranes?
may rec/bind/transport chemically related solutes
What factors influences flux/flow rate?
conc of gradient, partition coeff, diff coeff, thickness of membrane, surface area
2 consq of simple diff?
- -potential diff=alter net diff
- -diff of a charged solute down con gradient can generate diff across membrane
Facilitated diff moves how? Uses what?
- down gradient
- -GLUT-4 transporter moves D-glucose into skeletal/adipose cells
1o transport moves how? Requires what?
3 types of pumps
- Na+-K+ ATPase -> transport cyc
- Ca+ATPase -> PMCA, SERCA
2o active trasport
- indirect use of ATP
- -contratransport (symport)
- -countertransport (antiport)
- -2o AT solutes are transported in SAME direction
- -things move IN THE CELL
- 2o AT solutes move in the OPPOSITE direction
- -NA moves INTO cell
- conc of active particles
parts/kg of H2O
In muscle cell what goes in/out?
Osmotic pressure depends on what?
- -conc of osmotically active particles
- -whether solute can cross memb
Ion channels are
- -2nd messenger-gated
Voltage-gated channels uses what?
- activation vs inactivation
- open and close with trigger
2nd messenger gated channels
- cyclic AMP or IP3
- Δ inside membrane
wait for the right hormone (ligand) NOT an ion
What does magnitude depend on?
size of conc gradient (driving force)
- used to calculate eq potential
- eq converts C1C2 into a difference as voltage
What are these numbers?
- ENa +65
- ECa +120
- EK -85
- ECl -90
- What is the cells condition INSIDE
What is the driving force?
- diff between actual MP and calculated EP
- happens only when cells reach EQUILLIBRIUM
the concentration is the difference
the concentration is electrical potential difference
What is the net driving force?
- If NEGATIVE
- cation will enter cell
- anion will leave cell
current flow is made because of the ion
What conditions for ionic current movement?
- DF on the ion
- membrane has conductance (OPEN channels)