Bontrager ch 1 - 29

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Ghoelix
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306744
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Bontrager ch 1 - 29
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2015-09-30 00:36:36
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Bontrager 29
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Bontrager ch 1 - 29
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  1. Structural organization hierarchy...
    • chemical
    • |
    • cellular
    • |
    • tissue
    • |
    • organ
    • |
    • system
    • |
    • organism
  2. The 10 Body systems...
    • Skeletal
    • circulatory
    • digestive
    • respiratory
    • urinary
    • reproductive
    • nervous
    • muscular
    • endochrine
    • integumentary
  3. Osteology
    Study of bones
  4. Arthrology
    Study of joints
  5. Number of bones in:
    Complete skeleton
    Axial skeleton
    Appendicular skeleton
    • Complete:      206
    • Axial:             80
    • Appendicular: 126
  6. Calvaria
    Skull cap
  7. 5 kinds of bones
    • Long - arm and leg bones
    • Short - carpals, tarsals
    • Flat - ribs, sternum, scapulae
    • Irregular - spine, pelvis, face
    • Sessamoid - tiny bones imbedded in tendons in feet and hands
  8. Metaphysis
    • Widening portion between diaphysis and epiphysis.
    •   | |
    •   | |
    •   /  ---Metaphysis
    • (___)
  9. 4 classifications of joints.
    • Functional
    • Structural
    • Fibrous
    • Cartilaginous
  10. Blood cell reproduction
    Flat bones with red marrow produce red blood cells.
  11. Endochondral ossification
    Primary center...
    middle of diaphysis
  12. Endochondral ossification
    Secondary center
    Epiphysis ( growth plates )
  13. Functional joint
      Synarthrosis...
    imovable joint
  14. Functional joint
      Amphiarthrosis...
    limited movement
  15. Functional joint
      Diarthrosis...
    freely movable
  16. Fibrous Joint Characteristics
    • No joint cavity
    • Joint ends nearly in direct contact
    • Held together by fibrous connective tissue
  17. Structural joint
      Fibrous
        Syndesmoses...
    • Amphiarthrodial
    • Interosseous ligaments
    •   Distal tib-fib
    •   Sacroiliac
    •   Carpals & tarsals
  18. Structural joints
      Fibrous
        Sutures
    • Synarthrodial
    • Fibrous tissue
    •   Skull plates
  19. Cartilaginous Joint Characteristics
    • No joint cavity
    • Held together by cartilage
  20. Structural
     Cartilaginous
      Sympheses
    • fibrocartilage disk (broad, flattened disc of fibrocartilage)
    •   amphiarthrodial
    •   intervetebral discs
    •   pubic symphisis
  21. Structural
     Cartilaginous
      Synchondroses
    • Synarthrodial
    • Temporary joint in youth
    • Hyaline cartilage which later converts to bone
    •   Growth plates
  22. Structural joints
     Synovial joints
    • Diarthrodial
    • Fibrous capsule containing synovial fluid
    • Articular cartilage covers bone ends
    • Reinforced by accessory ligaments
  23. Structural
      Synovial
        Plane
    • Gliding joint
    •   Intermetacarpal
    •   Carpometacarpal
    •   Intercarpal
  24. Structural
     Synovial
      Gynglymus
    • Amphiarthrodial
    • Hinge
    • Flexion & extension only
    •   Interphlangeal joints of finger and toes
    •   Elbow joint
  25. Structural
     Synovial
      Trochoid
    • Pivot
    • Rotational movement around a single axis
    •   Proximal radioulnar
    •   Distal radioulnar
    •   Atlas-Axis
  26. Structural
     Synovial
      Ellipsoid
    • Condylar
    • Flexion-extension ( tap-tap )
    • Abduction-aduction ( no-no )
    • Circumduction
    •   Metacarpophylangeal
    •   Metatarsophalangeal
  27. Structural
     Synovial
      Sellar ( saddle )
    • Saddle shaped
    • Flexion-extension
    • Abduction-aduction
    • Circumduction
    •   First carpometacarpal
    •   ( thumb to metacarpal joint )
  28. Structural
     Synovial
      Spheroidal ( ball and socket )
    • Diarhtroidial
    • Shoulder, hip
  29. Structural
     Synovial
      Bicondylar
    • Knee
    • Temperomandibular
  30. Image Receptor
    • IR
    • Film or cassette
  31. Central Ray
    • CR
    • Center most portion of x-ray beam
  32. Steps for Radiographic examination...
    • 1. Position body part, align w/ IR & CR
    • 2. Application of radiation protection measures
    • 3. Selection of exposure factors
    • 4. Instructions to patient regarding breathing
    • 5. Process image
  33. Mediolateral
    • Enter medial, exit lateral
    • enter medial side of leg, exit lateral
  34. Trendelenburg
    Recumbent, head lower than feet.
  35. Fowlers
    Recumbent, head higher than feet.
  36. Sims
    • Recumbent oblique
    • partially lying on Left anterior side
    • knee and thigh flexed
    • Left arm extended down behind back.
  37. Left Posterior Oblique LPO
    Left posterior aspect of body is closest to image receiver, body is obliqued.
  38. Right posterior oblique RPO
    Right posterior aspect of body is closest to image receiver, body is obliqued.
  39. Axial projection...
    Any angle of 10 degrees or more from long axis of a structure or part of body.
  40. Inferiosuperior axial...
    • Enter inferior, exit superior, projected axially ( at an angle )
    • Shoulder, hip.
  41. Superioinferior
    • Enter superior, exit inferior, projected at an angle.
    • Shoulder, hip.
  42. Transgenital projection...
    • Touching a curve at only one point.
    • Transgenital view of patella allows view of patella alone, without other bones in front of or behind it.
  43. Lordotic position
    • AP Axial projection of chest to show apices of lungs.
    • Hips forward, shoulders back
    • CR perpendicular to IR?
  44. Transthoracic lateral projection R or L
    In one side of the chest and out the other.
  45. Acanthion
    Where the nose meets the upper lip.
  46. Parietoacanthial
    • CR enters parietal ( at sagital suture? )
    • exits acanthion, axial to spine
  47. Acanthioparietal
    Enters acanthion, exits parietal ( at sagital suture? ), axial to spine.
  48. Submentovertex SMV
    • Enters below chin
    • exits at vertex at top of skull ( sagital suture? )
  49. Verticosubmental VSM
    • Enters vertex at top of skull (sagital suture?)
    • exit below chin
  50. Lateral positions...
    • All lateral positions described by the part closest to the IR.
    • Right lateral = right side closest to IR.
  51. Decubitus positions...
    • Decubitus = lying down.
    • Always performed with CR horizontal to earth.
  52. Left Lateral Decubitus, AP...
    Lying on left side, CR horizontal, enter Anterior, exit Posterior.
  53. Right Lateral Decubitus, PA...
    Lying on right side, CR horizontal, enter Posterior, exit Anterior.
  54. Dorsal decubitus...
    Designated by which part of the body patient is lying on ( ventral or dorsal ) then which part of the body is closest to IR ( R lateral or L lateral )
  55. Dorsal decubitus Left lateral...
    Patient lies on back, left lateral side of body closest to IR, CR is horizontal.
  56. Ventral decubitus, Right lateral...
    Patient lies on stomach, right lateral side of body closest to IR, CR is horizontal.
  57. Transthoracic lateral projection...
    CR enters one side of thorax and out the other.  Designated by which side is closest to IR.
  58. Transthoracic Right lateral...
    Patient has Right Lateral side of body closest to IR.
  59. Ipsilateral
    Same side of body or part
  60. Contralateral
    Opposite side of body or part.
  61. hyperextension
    extended beyond straight or neutral position
  62. Abnormal hyperextension
    Extended waaaay beyond straight or neutral position.
  63. Spine hyperextension
    Bending backwards
  64. Spine Flexion
    Bending forward
  65. Spine extension
    Straight / neutral position
  66. Dorsiflexion
    Back of hand faced toward shoulder
  67. Acute flexion
    Palm of hand towards shoulder / axilla
  68. Ulnar deviation
    Hand rotates sideways toward ulna
  69. Radial deviation
    Hand rotates toward radius
  70. Eversion
    Outward stress movement of foot
  71. Inversion
    Inward stress movement of foot
  72. Valgus
    bending part outward / away from midline
  73. Supination
    • Palm toward front / anterior
    • beg
  74. Pronation
    • Palm toward back / down / posterior
    • dribble
  75. Protraction
    Movement away from a normal position
  76. Retraction
    Movement toward a normal position
  77. Elevation
    • Lifting, raising, moving superiorly
    • shrugging shoulders
  78. Depression
    Letting down, lowering, moving inferiorly
  79. Circumduction
    To move around in the form of a circle
  80. Rotate
    Turn or rotate a body part on it's axis
  81. Tilt
    Slanting or tilting with respect to long axis.

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