A&P1 - Test 2
Card Set Information
A&P1 - Test 2
Name the deep fatty layer
Name the two distinct regions of the integumentary system
Name functions of the skin
Protection - Cushions, insulates, waterproof, chemicals, heat, cold, bacteria, UV
Synthesizes vitamin D
Regulates body heat
Prevents unnecessary water loss
Sensory reception (nerve endings)
Name the tissue type of the epidermis
Keratinized stratified squamous (floor tiles) epithelium
Name the four types of cells of Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Keratinocytes – deepest, produce keratin (tough fibrous protein)
Melanocytes - make dark skin pigment melanin
Merkel cells – associated with sensory nerve endings
Langerhans cells – macrophage-like dendritic cells
Name the four basic types of tissue
Connective tissue (Dermis)
Name the strong, durable connective tissue (your hide)
Name the fiber types of the Dermis
Name the two layers of the dermis
What type of tissue is in the papillary layer of the dermis?
areolar connective tissue
What type of tissue is the reticular layer of the dermis?
Network of collagen and reticular fibers
tissue that lines blood vessels and air sacs of the lungs
permits exchange of nutrients, wastes, and gasses
simple squamous epithelial tissue
outer layer of skin, mouth, and vagina
protects against abrasion, drying out, and infection
stratified squamous epithelial tissue
lines kidney tubules and glands
secretes and reabsorbs water and small molecules
simple cuboidal epithelial tissue
lines ducts of sweat glands
secretes water and ions
stratified cuboidal epithelial tissue
lines most digestive organs - stomach and intestines
absorbs nutrients, produces mucus
simple columnar epithelial tissue
lines respiratory tract and some tubes of reproductive tract
involved with celia and goblet cells/attached at basement membrane
pseudostratified columnar epithelial tissue
has several layers and can be stretched in response to tension
found in the lining of the urinary system
transitional epithelial tissue
secrete products onto a free surface through a duct
ductless glands that secrete products into the blood
flattened cells (tiles)
several layers of epithelium
single layers of epithelium
name the layers of the epidermis
Name the 3 cartilage types
areolar connective tissue
pseudostratified ciliated columnar
Non-keratinized stratified squamous
simple cuboidal epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
dense regular connective tissue
elastic connective tissue
dense irregular connective tissue
name the 3 types of LOOSE connective tissue
Name the 3 types of DENSE connective tissue
Name the three pigments that make up our skin color
Melanin in granules passes from melanocytes (same number in all races) to keratinocytes in
arrector pili is made up of what type of muscle
name the functions of hair
Warmth – less in man than other mammals
Sense light touch of the skin
Protection - scalp
name the 3 types of sweat glands
Modified apocrine glands
most common and numerous sweat gland
sweat glands in axillary, anal, and genital areas only
sweat gland that produces ear wax and milk
modified apocrine gland
bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder, and hip
function of bones
blood cell formation
Name the line that separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis on long bones
epiphyseal line (growth plate)
Name the ends of the long bones
name the shaft of the long bones
spongy bone is contained in what part of the long bones?
yellow marrow is contained in what part of the long bones?
red marrow is located where?
infants - medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone
adults - diploë (crevices) of flat bones, and the head of the femur and humerus
weight-bearing, column-like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagen in compact bone
central channel containing blood vessels and nerves of compact bone
Haversian or central canal
channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian canal of compact bone
mature bone cells
small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes
hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal
A bone fracture where bone ends retain their normal position
A bone fracture where bone ends are out of normal alignment
A bone fracture where bone is broken all the way through
A bone fracture where bone is not broken all the way through
A bone fracture where the fracture is parallel to the long axis of the bone
A bone fracture where the fracture is perpendicular to the long axis of the bone
A bone fracture where bone ends penetrate the skin
A bone fracture where bone ends do not penetrate the skin
name the 4 stages of healing a fractured bone
Fibrocartilaginous callus formation
Bony callus formation
Group of diseases in which bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit
Name the 3 major regions of the axial skeleton
The axial skeleton consists of how many bones?
How many facial bones?
The only freely movable joint in skull?
1 = frontal sinus
2 = ethmoid air cells (sinus)
3 = sphenoidal sinus
4 = maxillary sinus
Name the freely movable bone that is the movable base for the tongue and the site of attachment for muscles of swallowing and speech
The vertebral column consists of how many bones?
How many of each set of vertebrae?
cervical = 7
thoracic = 12
lumbar = 5
Ligaments that connect from neck to sacrum
Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
Ligaments that connects adjacent vertebrae
Ligaments that connect each vertebra to those above and below
The sternum is composed of 3 bones, name them
Name the 3 anatomical landmarks of the sternum
How many pair of ribs?
Rib pair 1 - 7
Rib pairs 8 - 12
Rib pair 11 - 12
sternal end of clavicle
acromial end of clavicle
head of rib
neck of rib
Angle of rib
costal groove of rib
Name the 4 fontanelles
What 3 bones form the coxal bone?
What 3 bones form the bony pelvis?
The site where two or more bones meet
What are the function of joints?
Hold skeleton together
Give skeleton mobility
Name the 3 classification of joints
immovable joints, such as the pubic arch
slightly movable joints
freely movable joints
Name the 3 structural classification of joints
Bones joined by dense fibrous connective tissue with no joint cavity and mostly immovable?
Bones united by cartilage
Name the two types cartilaginous joints
Synchondroses (hyaline cartilage)
Symphyses (fibrocartilage - pubic symphysis)
Muscles attached to immovable bone is called?
Muscles attached to movable bone is called?
Name the 3 types of muscle tissue
Name 4 important functions of muscles
movement of bones or fluids
Each muscle is served by ?
one or more veins
The outside layer of entire muscle?
Epimysium (Epi = out)
The wrapping layer of a fascicle?
Perimysium (Peri = around)
The layer between individual muscle fibers?
Endomysium (Endo = within)
On the smallest scale of a contraction of muscle tissue?
Many sarcomere's make one
A muscle where the epimysium is fused to periosteum of bone of perichondrium of cartilage is what type of attachment?
A muscle where the connective tissue wrappings extend beyond muscle as rope-like tendon is what type of attachment?
thin muscle filaments are what type?
thick muscle filaments are what type?
The muscle cycle when an energized myosin head attaches to an actin myofilament?
Cross bridge formation
What two things are needed for the myosin head to cock and be ready for the muscle cycle?
ATP and Calcium
A muscle contraction with no shortening; muscle tension increases but does not exceed load - this is the energy put in before moving something
A muscle contraction when the muscle shortens because muscle tension exceeds load
The term when muscles contract, fatigue, then recruit others to contract then fatigue, and the cycle continues or until complete fatigue
Glycolysis that happens in cytoplasm and does not require O2?
Glycolysis that happens in mitochondria and requires O2?
A metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis that uses aerobic pathways
A metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis that uses anaerobic glycolysis
Name the 3 muscle fiber types
Slow oxidative fibers
Fast oxidative fibers
Fast glycolytic fibers