A&P1 - Test 2

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A&P1 - Test 2
2015-09-06 19:58:29

Test 2
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  1. Name the deep fatty layer
  2. Name the two distinct regions of the integumentary system
    • epidermis
    • dermis
  3. Name functions of the skin
    • Protection - Cushions, insulates, waterproof, chemicals, heat, cold, bacteria, UV
    • Synthesizes vitamin D
    • Regulates body heat
    • Prevents unnecessary water loss
    • Sensory reception (nerve endings)
  4. Name the tissue type of the epidermis
    Keratinized stratified squamous (floor tiles) epithelium
  5. Name the four types of cells of Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
    • Keratinocytes – deepest, produce keratin (tough fibrous protein)
    • Melanocytes - make dark skin pigment melanin
    • Merkel cells – associated with sensory nerve endings
    • Langerhans cells – macrophage-like dendritic cells
  6. Name the four basic types of tissue
    • Epithelium (Epidermis)
    • Connective tissue (Dermis)
    • Muscle tissue
    • Nervous tissue
  7. Name the strong, durable connective tissue (your hide)
  8. Name the fiber types of the Dermis
    • collagen
    • elastic
    • reticular
  9. Name the two layers of the dermis
    • Papillary
    • Reticular
  10. What type of tissue is in the papillary layer of the dermis?
    areolar connective tissue
  11. What type of tissue is the reticular layer of the dermis?
    Network of collagen and reticular fibers
  12. tissue that lines blood vessels and air sacs of the lungs
    permits exchange of nutrients, wastes, and gasses
    simple squamous epithelial tissue
  13. outer layer of skin, mouth, and vagina
    protects against abrasion, drying out, and infection
    stratified squamous epithelial tissue
  14. lines kidney tubules and glands
    secretes and reabsorbs water and small molecules
    simple cuboidal epithelial tissue
  15. lines ducts of sweat glands
    secretes water and ions
    stratified cuboidal epithelial tissue
  16. lines most digestive organs - stomach and intestines
    absorbs nutrients, produces mucus
    simple columnar epithelial tissue
  17. lines respiratory tract and some tubes of reproductive tract
    involved with celia and goblet cells/attached at basement membrane
    pseudostratified columnar epithelial tissue
  18. has several layers and can be stretched in response to tension
    found in the lining of the urinary system
    transitional epithelial tissue
  19. secrete products onto a free surface through a duct
    exocrine glands
  20. ductless glands that secrete products into the blood
  21. flattened cells (tiles)
  22. several layers of epithelium
    stratified epithelium
  23. single layers of epithelium
    simple epithelium
  24. name the layers of the epidermis
  25. Name the 3 cartilage types
    • hyaline
    • fibrocartilage
    • elastic cartilage
  26. areolar connective tissue
  27. adipose tissue
  28. pseudostratified ciliated columnar
  29. Non-keratinized stratified squamous
  30. transitional epithelium
  31. simple columnar
  32. simple cuboidal epithelium
  33. simple squamous epithelium
  34. dense regular connective tissue
  35. compact bone
  36. elastic connective tissue
  37. hyaline cartilage
  38. blood
  39. dense irregular connective tissue
  40. reticular tissue
  41. elastic cartilage
  42. spongy bone
  43. fibrocartilage
  44. smooth muscle
  45. nervous tissue
  46. skeletal muscle
  47. cardiac muscle
  48. name the 3 types of LOOSE connective tissue
    • areolar
    • reticular
    • adipose
  49. Name the 3 types of DENSE connective tissue
    • dense regular
    • dense irregular
    • elastic
  50. Name the three pigments that make up our skin color
    • melanin
    • carotene
    • hemoglobin
  51. Melanin in granules passes from melanocytes (same number in all races) to keratinocytes in
    stratum basale
  52. arrector pili is made up of what type of muscle
    smooth muscle
  53. name the functions of hair
    • Warmth – less in man than other mammals
    • Sense light touch of the skin
    • Protection - scalp
  54. name the 3 types of sweat glands
    • Eccrine
    • Apocrine
    • Modified apocrine glands
  55. most common and numerous sweat gland
  56. sweat glands in axillary, anal, and genital areas only
  57. sweat gland that produces ear wax and milk
    modified apocrine gland
  58. bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
    Axial skeleton
  59. bones of the upper and lower limbs, shoulder, and hip
    Appendicular skeleton
  60. function of bones
    • support
    • protection
    • movement
    • mineral storage
    • blood cell formation
  61. Name the line that separates the diaphysis from the epiphysis on long bones
    epiphyseal line (growth plate)
  62. Name the ends of the long bones
  63. name the shaft of the long bones
  64. spongy bone is contained in what part of the long bones?
  65. yellow marrow is contained in what part of the long bones?
  66. red marrow is located where?
    • infants - medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone
    • adults - diploë (crevices) of flat bones, and the head of the femur and humerus
  67. weight-bearing, column-like matrix tubes composed mainly of collagen in compact bone
  68. central channel containing blood vessels and nerves of compact bone
    Haversian or central canal
  69. channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian canal of compact bone
    Volkmann's canals
  70. mature bone cells
  71. small cavities in bone that contain osteocytes
  72. hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal
  73. A bone fracture where bone ends retain their normal position
    non-displaced fracture
  74. A bone fracture where bone ends are out of normal alignment
    displaced fracture
  75. A bone fracture where bone is broken all the way through
  76. A bone fracture where bone is not broken all the way through
  77. A bone fracture where the fracture is parallel to the long axis of the bone
  78. A bone fracture where the fracture is perpendicular to the long axis of the bone
  79. A bone fracture where bone ends penetrate the skin
  80. A bone fracture where bone ends do not penetrate the skin
    simple (closed)
  81. comminuted fracture
  82. compression fracture
  83. spiral fracture
  84. epiphyseal fracture
  85. depressed fracture
  86. greenstick fracture
  87. name the 4 stages of healing a fractured bone
    • Hematoma formation
    • Fibrocartilaginous callus formation
    • Bony callus formation
    • Bone remodeling
  88. Group of diseases in which bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit
  89. Squamous suture
  90. Name the 3 major regions of the axial skeleton
    • Skull
    • Vertebral column
    • Thoracic cage
  91. The axial skeleton consists of how many bones?
  92. Coronal suture
  93. Lambdoid suture
  94. How many facial bones?
  95. The only freely movable joint in skull?
    Temporomandibular joint
    • 1 = frontal sinus
    • 2 = ethmoid air cells (sinus)
    • 3 = sphenoidal sinus
    • 4 = maxillary sinus
  96. Name the freely movable bone that is the movable base for the tongue and the site of attachment for muscles of swallowing and speech
    Hyoid bone
  97. Hyoid bone
  98. The vertebral column consists of how many bones?
  99. How many of each set of vertebrae?
    • cervical = 7
    • thoracic = 12
    • lumbar = 5
    • sacrum
    • coccyx
  100. scoliosis
  101. kyphosis
  102. lordosis
  103. Ligaments that connect from neck to sacrum
    Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
  104. Ligaments that connects adjacent vertebrae
    Ligamentum flavum
  105. Ligaments that connect each vertebra to those above and below
    Short ligaments
  106. cervical vertebrae
  107. thoracic vertebra
  108. lumbar vertebrae
  109. The sternum is composed of 3 bones, name them
    • Manubrium
    • Sternal body
    • Xiphoid process
    • Manubrium
    • Body
    • Xiphoid process
  110. Name the 3 anatomical landmarks of the sternum
    • Jugular notch
    • Sternal notch
    • Xiphisternal joint
  111. How many pair of ribs?
  112. Rib pair 1 - 7
    True ribs
  113. True ribs
  114. Rib pairs 8 - 12
    False ribs
  115. False ribs
  116. Rib pair 11 - 12
    Floating ribs
  117. Floating ribs
  118. sternal end of clavicle
  119. acromial end of clavicle
  120. head of rib
  121. neck of rib
  122. Angle of rib
  123. costal groove of rib
  124. Name the 4 fontanelles
    • anterior
    • posterior
    • mastoid
    • sphenoidal
  125. What 3 bones form the coxal bone?
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
  126. What 3 bones form the bony pelvis?
    • Coxal bones
    • sacrum
    • coccyx
  127. The site where two or more bones meet
  128. What are the function of joints?
    • Hold skeleton together
    • Give skeleton mobility
  129. Name the 3 classification of joints
    • synarthroses
    • amphiarthroses
    • diarthroses
  130. immovable joints, such as the pubic arch
  131. slightly movable joints
  132. freely movable joints
  133. Name the 3 structural classification of joints
    • fibrous
    • cartilaginous
    • synovial
  134. Bones joined by dense fibrous connective tissue with no joint cavity and mostly immovable?
    fibrous joints
  135. Bones united by cartilage
    cartilaginous joints
  136. Name the two types cartilaginous joints
    • Synchondroses (hyaline cartilage)
    • Symphyses (fibrocartilage - pubic symphysis)
  137. Muscles attached to immovable bone is called?
  138. Muscles attached to movable bone is called?
  139. Name the 3 types of muscle tissue
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  140. Name 4 important functions of muscles
    • movement of bones or fluids
    • maintaining posture
    • stabilizing joints
    • heat generation
  141. Each muscle is served by ?
    • one artery
    • one nerve
    • one or more veins
  142. The outside layer of entire muscle?
    Epimysium (Epi = out)
  143. The wrapping layer of a fascicle?
    Perimysium (Peri = around)
  144. The layer between individual muscle fibers?
    Endomysium (Endo = within)
  145. On the smallest scale of a contraction of muscle tissue?
  146. Many sarcomere's make one
  147. A muscle where the epimysium is fused to periosteum of bone of perichondrium of cartilage is what type of attachment?
  148. A muscle where the connective tissue wrappings extend beyond muscle as rope-like tendon is what type of attachment?
  149. thin muscle filaments are what type?
  150. thick muscle filaments are what type?
  151. The muscle cycle when an energized myosin head attaches to an actin myofilament?
    Cross bridge formation
  152. What two things are needed for the myosin head to cock and be ready for the muscle cycle?
    ATP and Calcium
  153. A muscle contraction with no shortening; muscle tension increases but does not exceed load - this is the energy put in before moving something
    isometric contraction
  154. A muscle contraction when the muscle shortens because muscle tension exceeds load
    Isotonic contraction
  155. The term when muscles contract, fatigue, then recruit others to contract then fatigue, and the cycle continues or until complete fatigue
  156. Glycolysis that happens in cytoplasm and does not require O2?
  157. Glycolysis that happens in mitochondria and requires O2?
  158. A metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis that uses aerobic pathways
    oxidative fibers
  159. A metabolic pathway for ATP synthesis that uses anaerobic glycolysis
    Glycolytic fibers
  160. Name the 3 muscle fiber types
    • Slow oxidative fibers
    • Fast oxidative fibers
    • Fast glycolytic fibers