Cattle- PE and Hx
Card Set Information
Cattle- PE and Hx
cattle disease vet med
What is the normal temperature range for an adult cow?
38-39 celcius; 100.5-102.5 fahrenheit
What is the normal temperature range for a calf?
39-40.5 celcius, 101.5-103 fahrenheit
******What is the normal range for heart rate in an adult cow?
******What is the normal range for heart rate in a calf?
******What is the normal range for respiratory rate in an adult cow?
******What is the normal range for respiratory rate in a calf?
There is space b/w the pin bones of a pregnant cow who has come into the clinic for dystocia. What is likely wrong with her?
the sacral ligaments have dropped/torn, causing changes to the dimensions of the pelvic cavity --> difficult calving
How do you evaluate the hydration status of a cow?
pinch the upper eyelid; if the skin stays tented for longer than 4 seconds, the animal is more than 10% dehydrated
Hemorrhages in the sclera may indicate _______, especially in young calves.
How can you guess where the nasal d/c is coming from?
if d/c is bilateral, coming from somewhere caudal to the nasal septum; if d/c is unilateral, coming from somewhere in the nasal septum or rostral to it
Bilateral hemorrhage may indicate __________.
Describe the signs of Malignant catarrhal fever. (4)
dry, cracked nose, bilateral nasal d/c, corneal edema, lesions of the buccal cavity and muzzle
Where can you auscult the lungs of a cow?
ventral thorax b/w the 3 and 6 ribs (beneath elbow)
Describe pericardial effusion as it would be diagnosed on auscultation.
muffling followed by washing machine murmur
Where is auscultation of the left AV valve performed?
left 4th ICS at olecranon
Where is auscultation of the aortic valve performed?
left 4th ICS below shoulder (under triceps)
Where is auscultation of the right AV valve performed?
right 3rd ICS (very dull)
Where is auscultation of the pulmonary valve performed?
left 3rd ICS at costochondral junction
What 2 types of disorders can cause bradycardia?
conduction disorders and metabolic disorders
What 3 conduction disorders can cause bradycardia?
myocarditis, vagal tone, brain abcesses
What 3 metabolic disorders can cause bradycardia?
uremia, hypokalemia, hypercalcemia
What 4 diseases can cause tachycardia?
pain, toxemia/septicemia, hypocalcemia, anemia
Why does milk fever cause bradycardia?
increased HR because the heart can't contract with full force; therefore, there is in increase in rate in an attempt to pump the same amount of blood
When ausculting the lungs in normal adult cattle, _________ sounds are slightly more audible than _________ sounds.
Absence of lung sounds may be due to...
pneumothorax, pleural effusion (uncommon) [in general, lung sounds are very hard to hear in cattle]
What are the auscultation borders of cow lungs? (3)
11th rib at tuber coxae, 9th rib at point of shoulder, 5th rib at point of elbow
What are 4 signs of thoracic disease?
abducted elbows, distended abdomen, brisket edema, jugular distension/ pulsation
What disease(s) may cause a reverse D shape of the abdomen when viewed from behind the cow?
What disease(s) may cause a pear shape of the abdomen when viewed from behind the cow?
ascites, intestinal obstruction
What disease(s) may cause a apple shape of the abdomen when viewed from behind the cow?
hydrops, severe ascites
What disease(s) may cause a D-shape of the abdomen when viewed from behind the cow?
cecocolic volvulus, abomasal volvulus
What disease(s) may cause a papple shape of the abdomen when viewed from behind the cow?
OTF, abomasal impaction, vagal indigestion
Where do you auscult the rumen? What are implications of rumen sounds in these locations?
left flank and over the ribs; sounds at both locations--> probably no LDA; sounds only in left flank --> possible LDA
When is the new methylene blue reduction test?
measures time taken to convert the blue to the original color of the rumen fluid; organisms should reduce the dye in 3-6 minutes if adequate
What do you add together to perform the NMB reduction test?
9.5mL rumen fluid + 0.5mL NMB
Rumen fluid should have predominantly ________ bacteria.
What are normal and abnormal values for the rumen chloride of rumen fluid?
normal <24mmol/L (19-29); abnormal >30mmol/L
What are 3 ways to determine abdominal pain?
withers pinch response test, xiphoid response test, eric williams test
What is the Eric Williams test?
auscult trachea and palpate paralumbar fossa at the same time; soft grunt audible just prior to rumen contraction
What organs can you palpate trans-rectally? (5)
reproductive organs, sublumbar ln, dorsal sac of rumen, left kidney, right side of abdomen