What are the pros to mid-stream free catch collection of urine? (6)
free, easy, client can perform, low risk to patient, no effect on USG/ketones/glucose, good screen for hematuria
What are the cons to mid-stream free catch collection of urine? (2)
contamination by distal urinary tract with bacteria/protein/WBCs/cellular debris, tough in cats and some female dogs
What are the pros to catheterization for urine collection? (3)
easy in male dogs, less risk of contamination by distal urinary tract, can completely empty bladder easily
What are the cons to catheterization for urine collection? (5)
requires sedation in female dogs and all cats, may damage urethra, need for sterile technique, can potentially introduce cells/protein/blood to sample, will artificially increase epithelial cell numbers
What are the pros of cystocentesis for urine collection? (4)
relatively easy, quick, minimal risk of contamination, well tolerated
What are the cons of cystocentesis for urine collection? (5)
can have blood contamination with traumatic stick, risk for patients with thrombocytopenia/ coagulopathies/weak bladder wall, challenging in obese/pollakiuric animals, seeding of TCC, rare vasovagal response in cats
What does pollakiuric mean?
patient with irritated voiding (urinates even when bladder is nearly empty)
How do you prepare urine that has been refrigerated for UA?
warm to room temp
What does intermittent pigmenturia indicate? What disorder is this associated with?
erythrocyte fragility; PFK deficiency
In what species is the urine normally turbid?
horses and rabbits
What is the only portion of the UA that provides info about renal function?