Neuro- Development and Organization

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Mawad
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306825
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Neuro- Development and Organization
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2015-08-30 11:42:30
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vetmed neuro
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vetmed neuro
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  1. The neural plate comes from...
    thickening of the ectoderm
  2. What are the 3 events of neural tube formation?
    • Formation of:
    • 1. neural plate
    • 2. neural groove and folds
    • 3. neural tube
  3. What event immediately precedes the formation of the neural tube?
    neural folds grow dorsally and eventually fuse
  4. What are the 4 derivatives of the neural crest?
    dorsal root ganglia, sensory ganglia of certain nerves, autonomic ganglia, adrenal medulla
  5. Collection of cell bodies outside the CNS that derive from the neural crest.
    dorsal root ganglia (aka. spinal ganglia)
  6. Collection of cell bodies inside the walls of viscera.
    autonomic ganglia
  7. What are the components of the primary vesicle stage of brain development?
    [rostral] prosencephalon (forebrain), mesencephalon (midbrain), rhombencephalon (hindbrain) [caudal]
  8. What are the components of the secondary vesicle stage?
    [rostral] telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon [caudal]
  9. The ___________ of the secondary vesicle stage derive(s) from the proencephalon of the primary vesicle stage.
    telencephalon and diencephalon
  10. The ___________ of the secondary vesicle stage derive(s) from the mesencephalon of the primary vesicle stage.
    mesencephalon
  11. The ___________ of the secondary vesicle stage derive(s) from the rhombencephalon of the primary vesicle stage.
    metencephalon and myelencephalon
  12. CSF is produced by the ________.
    ventricular system
  13. What are the components of the ventricular system?
    lateral ventricles, third ventricle, mesencephalic duct, fourth ventricle (aka rhomboid fossa)
  14. The lateral ventricles are located in the ____________ and are ___-shaped.
    telencephalon; C
  15. What is the purpose of the interventricular foramen?
    connects the left and right lateral ventricles and third ventricle along midline
  16. The third ventricle is located in the __________.
    diencephalon
  17. The mesencephalic duct is located in the ____________.
    mesencephalon
  18. The fourth ventricle is located ___________.
    under the cerebellum
  19. What are the components of the fourth ventricle?
    lateral apertures (aka foramen of Luschka) and median aperture (aka foramen of Magendie- only in primates)
  20. The median aperture of the fourth ventricle is only present in __________ and empties into the _________.
    primates; cisterna magna
  21. Describe the flow of CSF through the ventricles.
    lateral ventricles --> interventricular foramen --> third ventricle --> mesencephalic aqueduct --> fourth ventricle --> spinal cord
  22. The frontmost opening of the neural tube.
    rostral neuropore
  23. The hind opening of the neural tube.
    caudal neuropore
  24. Failure of closure of the rostral neuropore.
    anencephaly
  25. Failure of closure of the caudal neuropore.
    spina bifida
  26. What are the brain flexures from rostral to caudal?
    midbrain, pontine, cervical
  27. Where is the midbrain flexure located?
    cranial ventral surface
  28. Where is the pontine flexure located?
    dorsal surface
  29. Where is the cervical flexure located?
    caudal ventral surface
  30. What are the divisions of the nervous system?
    central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system
  31. What are the components of the central nervous system?
    brain and spinal cord
  32. What are the components of the peripheral nervous system?
    ganglia and cell processes outside the brain and spinal cord
  33. What are the components of the autonomic nervous system?
    features of both the central and peripheral nervous systems
  34. What are the histologic layers of the developing spinal cord from superficial to deep?
    marginal layer, mantle layer, germinal layer
  35. The marginal layer of the developing spinal cord becomes the ________.
    white matter
  36. The mantle layer of the developing spinal cord becomes the __________.
    gray matter
  37. The germinal layer of the developing spinal cord becomes the _________, which are...
    ependymal cells; lining of ventricular system and central canal of spinal cord
  38. What is the sulcus limitans?
    divides the top and bottom half of the developing neural tube
  39. The ________ is dorsal to the sulcus limitans and serves _________ function.
    alar plate; sensory
  40. The ________ is ventral to the sulcus limitans and serves ________ function.
    basal plate; motor
  41. What are the types of gray matter in the brain?
    cortical (on the surface), subcortical (pockets under the surface)
  42. Describe white matter in the brain.
    tracts and pathways under the cortical grey matter
  43. Describe gray matter in the spinal cord.
    columns or horns under the surface
  44. Describe white matter in the spinal cord.
    surface bundles that form tracts
  45. What are the types of white matter in the spinal cord?
    fasciculus, funiculus
  46. Small bundles of white matter that make up a funiculus.
    fasciculus
  47. What funiculi are present in the spinal cord?
    dorsal, 2 lateral, and ventral
  48. What are the components of the peripheral nervous system?
    cell bodies, cell processes
  49. Cell bodies of the PNS are ________ in __________ that serve a _________ function.
    gray matter; ganglia; sensory
  50. Cell process of the PNS are _______ that make up ________.
    white matter; nerve fibers
  51. Cell bodies are located in... (3)
    dorsal root ganglia, autonomic ganglia, ganglia of sensory cranial nerves
  52. The cerebellum is part of the _________.
    metencephalon
  53. What are the rostral and caudal limits of the myelencephalon?
    rostral: trapezoid body; caudal: fourth ventricle/caudal half of the rhomboid fossa
  54. What is the ventral boundary of the metencephalon?
    transverse fibers of the pons
  55. What is the dorsal boundary of the metencephalon?
    cerebellum
  56. Stalk-like structures under the cerebellum and part of the metencephalon [from lateral to medial].
    middle, caudal, rostral cerebellar peduncles
  57. What is the rostral boundary of the metencephalon?
    fourth ventricle/ rostral half of the rhomboid fossa
  58. Left and right bundles of the mesencephalon.
    crus cerebri
  59. What are the components of the corpora quadrigemina?
    paired rostral and caudal calliculi
  60. What are the components of the mesencephalon in the adult brain?
    crus cerebri, corpora quadrigemina, tectum, tegmentum, mesencephalic aqueduct
  61. The ________ is the dorsal portion of the mesencephalon and the ________ is the ventral portion; they are separated by the _________.
    tectum; tegmentum; mesencephalic duct
  62. What are the 5 subdivisions of the diencephalon?
    thalamus, epithalamus, metathalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus
  63. What is the biggest part of the diencephalon?
    thalamus
  64. What part of the diencephalon cannot be visualized?
    subthalamus
  65. What connects the diencephalon and mesencephalon?
    subthalamus
  66. What is the rostral limit of the diencephalon?
    optic chiasm
  67. What is the optic chiasm?
    Where the CNII join and merge
  68. What is the caudal limit of the diencephalon?
    mamillary body
  69. What are the boundaries of the hypothalamus?
    optic chiasm and mamillary body
  70. What extends over the lateral surface of the diencephalon?
    optic tract
  71. Geniculate bodies =...
    metathalamus
  72. What is the significance of the lateral geniculate bodies?
    site of termination of the optic tract
  73. What are the components of the epithalamus?
    third ventricle, pineal body/gland
  74. The telencephalon forms the... (2)
    cerebrum and lateral ventricles
  75. What are the left and right sides of the lateral ventricles?
    left: ventricle I; right: ventricle II
  76. What divisions of the brain make up the forebrain? How are they commonly referred to by clinicians?
    telencephalon and diencephalon; aka thalamocortex or thalamocortical unit
  77. What division of the brain makes up the midbrain? How is it referred to by clinicians?
    mesencephalon; midbrain
  78. What divisions of the brain make up the hindbrain? How are they commonly referred to by clinicians?
    metencephalon and myelencephalon; pons/cerebellum and medulla, respectively
  79. Anatomically, the ________ is the telencephalon and the ________ is everything else.
    cerebrum; brainstem
  80. The spinal cord has a dorsal median _______ and a ventral median _______.
    sulcus; fissure
  81. The dorsal root emerging from the spinal cord has _______ function and gives rise to the _________; the ventral root has ________ function; these merge to form the _________, which immediately branches to the _______.
    sensory; dorsal root ganglia; motor; spinal nerve; dorsal and ventral branches of the spinal nerve
  82. The canine spinal cord terminates at ________.
    L5
  83. The equine spinal cord terminates at ______.
    S1 or 2
  84. The bovine spinal cord terminates at ______.
    L6
  85. The feline spinal cord terminates at _____.
    L6
  86. What is cervical intumescence?
    An enlargement of the spinal cord b/w C6 and T2, where there are more cell bodies present to leave through the brachial plexus and innervate the limb
  87. Where does lumbar intumescence occur?
    b/w L5 and S1
  88. What are the layers of the meninges from superficial to deep?
    dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
  89. The tapered termination of the spinal cord.
    conus meullaris
  90. The extension of the dura mater along the midline That anchors the spinal cord in the canal.
    filum terminale
  91. Roots of spinal nn. as they exit the termination of the spinal canal segmentally, caudal to the termination of the spinal cord.
    cauda equinum
  92. Spinal nerve roots emerge from the _____ and separate to become ________, which...
    ganglion; spinal nerve rootlets; enter/attach to spinal cord
  93. What are the divisions of white matter in the spinal cord?
    dorsal, lateral, and ventral funiculi
  94. What are the divisions of grey matter in the spinal cord?
    dorsal and ventral horns, lateral horn only in the thoracolumbar segment of the spinal cord
  95. Why is the lateral horn of grey matter only present in the thoracolumbar portion of the spinal cord?
    b/c they give rise to the sympathetic nervous system
  96. General somatic afferent (GSA) neurons are...
    sensory neurons from the body.
  97. General visceral afferent (GVA) neurons are...
    sensory neurons from the viscera.
  98. General visceral efferent (GVE) neurons are...
    motor innervation to organs.
  99. General somatic efferent (GSE) neurons are...
    motor innervation to the muscles of the body.
  100. Describe the functional arrangement of nuclear columns of the spinal cord.
    GSA --> GVA --> sulcus limitans --> GVE --> GSE

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