What part of the diencephalon cannot be visualized?
What connects the diencephalon and mesencephalon?
What is the rostral limit of the diencephalon?
What is the optic chiasm?
Where the CNII join and merge
What is the caudal limit of the diencephalon?
What are the boundaries of the hypothalamus?
optic chiasm and mamillary body
What extends over the lateral surface of the diencephalon?
Geniculate bodies =...
What is the significance of the lateral geniculate bodies?
site of termination of the optic tract
What are the components of the epithalamus?
third ventricle, pineal body/gland
The telencephalon forms the... (2)
cerebrum and lateral ventricles
What are the left and right sides of the lateral ventricles?
left: ventricle I; right: ventricle II
What divisions of the brain make up the forebrain? How are they commonly referred to by clinicians?
telencephalon and diencephalon; aka thalamocortex or thalamocortical unit
What division of the brain makes up the midbrain? How is it referred to by clinicians?
What divisions of the brain make up the hindbrain? How are they commonly referred to by clinicians?
metencephalon and myelencephalon; pons/cerebellum and medulla, respectively
Anatomically, the ________ is the telencephalon and the ________ is everything else.
The spinal cord has a dorsal median _______ and a ventral median _______.
The dorsal root emerging from the spinal cord has _______ function and gives rise to the _________; the ventral root has ________ function; these merge to form the _________, which immediately branches to the _______.
sensory; dorsal root ganglia; motor; spinal nerve; dorsal and ventral branches of the spinal nerve
The canine spinal cord terminates at ________.
The equine spinal cord terminates at ______.
S1 or 2
The bovine spinal cord terminates at ______.
The feline spinal cord terminates at _____.
What is cervical intumescence?
An enlargement of the spinal cord b/w C6 and T2, where there are more cell bodies present to leave through the brachial plexus and innervate the limb
Where does lumbar intumescence occur?
b/w L5 and S1
What are the layers of the meninges from superficial to deep?
dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
The tapered termination of the spinal cord.
The extension of the dura mater along the midline That anchors the spinal cord in the canal.
Roots of spinal nn. as they exit the termination of the spinal canal segmentally, caudal to the termination of the spinal cord.
Spinal nerve roots emerge from the _____ and separate to become ________, which...
ganglion; spinal nerve rootlets; enter/attach to spinal cord
What are the divisions of white matter in the spinal cord?
dorsal, lateral, and ventral funiculi
What are the divisions of grey matter in the spinal cord?
dorsal and ventral horns, lateral horn only in the thoracolumbar segment of the spinal cord
Why is the lateral horn of grey matter only present in the thoracolumbar portion of the spinal cord?
b/c they give rise to the sympathetic nervous system
General somatic afferent (GSA) neurons are...
sensory neurons from the body.
General visceral afferent (GVA) neurons are...
sensory neurons from the viscera.
General visceral efferent (GVE) neurons are...
motor innervation to organs.
General somatic efferent (GSE) neurons are...
motor innervation to the muscles of the body.
Describe the functional arrangement of nuclear columns of the spinal cord.