Unit 1

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Unit 1
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2015-09-28 10:10:54
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  1. A broad field with many specialties, but fundamentally it is known as the scientific study of behavior ad mental processes.
    Psychology
  2. What is the science of psychology based on?
    Objective and verifiable methodology and study
  3. The standard for all psychological research.
    empirical approach
  4. Means that a study is conducted through careful observation and scientifically based research.
    empirical approach
  5. unscientific psychology that presents itself as scientific psychology.
    pseudopsychology
  6. The tendency for humans to pay attention to events that confirm their beliefs, while the ignore evidence that does not support their belief.
    confirmation bias
  7. harmful effects of pseudpsychology
    • fraud
    • confirmation bias
    • potential for serious harm
    • invalid therapies
  8. Three different ways psychology is practiced
    • experimental psychology
    • applied psychology 
    • teaching psychology
  9. Involves basic research on psychological processes
    experimental psychology
  10. Uses the knowledge developed by experimental psychologists to solve human problems
    Applied psychology
  11. Involves teaching at the high school, college, or university level and may overlap with experimental psychology
    teaching psychology
  12. A medical specialty that involves the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.
    psychiatry
  13. Developed from several conflicting traditions, including structuralism, functionalism, Gestalt psychology, behaviorism, and psychoanalysis
    Modern psychology
  14. Historical school of psychology founded by Wilhelm Wundt
    Structuralism
  15. This branch focused on the structures that make up mind and thought, rather than what the mind could do (consciousness).
    Structuralism
  16. Who used introspection?
    Wihelm Wudnt
  17. The process of reporting one's conscious mental experiences
    introspection
  18. Historical school of psychology founded by William James.
    Functionalism
  19. He believed that mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function
    William James
  20. Historical school of psychology that tried to understand how the brain works by studying perceptions and perceptual learning.
    Gestalt psychology
  21. The were gestalt psychologists that believed that precepts consist of meaningful wholes
    Max Wertheimer and Wolfgang Kohler
  22. Historical school of psychology, led by John B. Watson that attempted to make psychology an objective science focused only on behavior ----excluding all mental processes.
    Behaviorism
  23. An approach to psychology based on Sigmund Freud's belief that emphasize unconscious processes
    Psychoanalysis
  24. What term refers to Freud's psychoanalytical theory and his psychoanalytical treatment method?
    psychoanalysis
  25. An introspective look at the ____ ____ illustrates that humans for not sense the world as it really is, but perceive the world by adding personal interpretations of experiences.
    Necker Cube
  26. There are ___ main perspectives that characterize modern psychology.
    9
  27. Name the main perspectives in modern psychology.
    • biological
    • developmental
    • cognitive
    • psycho-dynamic
    • humanistic
    • behavioral 
    • sociocultural 
    • evolutionary/sociobiological 
    • trait views
  28. This perspective searches for the causes of behavior in heredity (genetics), the brain, the nervous system, and endocrine (hormone) system.
    biological perspective
  29. Disciplines interested in brain processes (such as neurology and biological psychology) are collectively called _____.
    neuroscience
  30. This perspective explains behavior and mental processes in terms of their genetic adaptations for survival and reproduction
    evolutionary psychology
  31. This perspective explores changes that occur across the life span. Psychologists in this field explore the contributions of heredity and environment, of nature vs. nurture.
    Developmental perspective
  32. This perspective explains that our actions are influenced by the way we process information coming from our environment; it emphasizes mental processes such as learning, memory, perception, thinking, and information processing.
    cognitive perspective
  33. An interdisciplinary field that studies the connections among mind, brain, and behavior
    cognitive neuroscience
  34. This view emphasizes mental health and mental illness.
    clinical view
  35. This perspective states that we are motivated primarily by the energy of irrational desires that are generated in our unconscious mind. It emphasizes the importance the understanding of mental disorders in terms of unconscious needs, desires, memories, and conflicts
    psycho-dynamic perspective
  36. This perspective emphasizes the human ability, growth, potential, and free will. Self-concept and the importance of self-concept are also emphasized
    humanistic perspective
  37. They believed in humanistic perspective
    Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
  38. This perspective find the source of our actions in our external environment, rather than our inner mental processes or our biology. "Rewards and punishments shape how we act"
    behavioral perspective
  39. A complex blend of language, beliefs, customs, values, and traditions developed by a group of people and shared with others in the same environment.
    culture
  40. This perspective emphasizes the importance of social relations, social language, and one's culture. It states that social influence is the focus of psychology
    sociocultural view
  41. This perspective looks at human behavior and mental processes as adaptive and hereditary. "Behavior is determined by natural selection"
    evolutionary/sociobiological perspective
  42. This perspective views behavior and personality as the products of enduring psychological characteristics. Individual differences result from differences in our underlying patterns of stable characteristics
    traits perspective

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