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A broad field with many specialties, but fundamentally it is known as the scientific study of behavior ad mental processes.
What is the science of psychology based on?
Objective and verifiable methodology and study
The standard for all psychological research.
Means that a study is conducted through careful observation and scientifically based research.
unscientific psychology that presents itself as scientific psychology.
The tendency for humans to pay attention to events that confirm their beliefs, while the ignore evidence that does not support their belief.
harmful effects of pseudpsychology
- confirmation bias
- potential for serious harm
- invalid therapies
Three different ways psychology is practiced
- experimental psychology
- applied psychology
- teaching psychology
Involves basic research on psychological processes
Uses the knowledge developed by experimental psychologists to solve human problems
Involves teaching at the high school, college, or university level and may overlap with experimental psychology
A medical specialty that involves the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.
Developed from several conflicting traditions, including structuralism, functionalism, Gestalt psychology, behaviorism, and psychoanalysis
Historical school of psychology founded by Wilhelm Wundt
This branch focused on the structures that make up mind and thought, rather than what the mind could do (consciousness).
Who used introspection?
The process of reporting one's conscious mental experiences
Historical school of psychology founded by William James.
He believed that mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function
Historical school of psychology that tried to understand how the brain works by studying perceptions and perceptual learning.
The were gestalt psychologists that believed that precepts consist of meaningful wholes
Max Wertheimer and Wolfgang Kohler
Historical school of psychology, led by John B. Watson that attempted to make psychology an objective science focused only on behavior ----excluding all mental processes.
An approach to psychology based on Sigmund Freud's belief that emphasize unconscious processes
What term refers to Freud's psychoanalytical theory and his psychoanalytical treatment method?
An introspective look at the ____ ____ illustrates that humans for not sense the world as it really is, but perceive the world by adding personal interpretations of experiences.
There are ___ main perspectives that characterize modern psychology.
Name the main perspectives in modern psychology.
- trait views
This perspective searches for the causes of behavior in heredity (genetics), the brain, the nervous system, and endocrine (hormone) system.
Disciplines interested in brain processes (such as neurology and biological psychology) are collectively called _____.
This perspective explains behavior and mental processes in terms of their genetic adaptations for survival and reproduction
This perspective explores changes that occur across the life span. Psychologists in this field explore the contributions of heredity and environment, of nature vs. nurture.
This perspective explains that our actions are influenced by the way we process information coming from our environment; it emphasizes mental processes such as learning, memory, perception, thinking, and information processing.
An interdisciplinary field that studies the connections among mind, brain, and behavior
This view emphasizes mental health and mental illness.
This perspective states that we are motivated primarily by the energy of irrational desires that are generated in our unconscious mind. It emphasizes the importance the understanding of mental disorders in terms of unconscious needs, desires, memories, and conflicts
This perspective emphasizes the human ability, growth, potential, and free will. Self-concept and the importance of self-concept are also emphasized
They believed in humanistic perspective
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
This perspective find the source of our actions in our external environment, rather than our inner mental processes or our biology. "Rewards and punishments shape how we act"
A complex blend of language, beliefs, customs, values, and traditions developed by a group of people and shared with others in the same environment.
This perspective emphasizes the importance of social relations, social language, and one's culture. It states that social influence is the focus of psychology
This perspective looks at human behavior and mental processes as adaptive and hereditary. "Behavior is determined by natural selection"
This perspective views behavior and personality as the products of enduring psychological characteristics. Individual differences result from differences in our underlying patterns of stable characteristics
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