Comm Exam 1

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Comm Exam 1
2015-08-30 16:15:14
Exam 1 Ch 1-4
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  1. What is defined as the syntheses of nursing and public healthcare practices
    Community and Public Health Care Nursing
  2. What is the mission of public health?
    Social justice: all people are entitled to basic necessities
  3. What identifies areas for further investigation and interventions through an understanding of health, disease, and mortality
    Community Health Nurse
  4. What does community health include within the realm of public health?
    organized health efforts at the community level through BOTH government AND private efforts
  5. Who is the primary client of COMMUNITY health?
  6. What 3 pieces of data are required for Community health research
    • Epidemiology of problem
    • Solution of problem
    • Information about the community
  7. What is the application of nursing process for individuals, families, and groups where they live, work, go to school, or as they move the healthcare system
    Community BASED nursing
  8. What type of nursing is SETTING SPECIFIC
    Community BASED
  9. Who is the primary client of Community BASED nursing
    Individual and family
  10. What type of nursing involves both direct and indirect approach
    Community health
  11. What type of nursing involves a LARGELY direct approach
    Community Based
  12. What is the core function of Public Health?
    Assessment, Policy development, and assurance
  13. Who is the MAIN focus on in Public health
  14. 3 required pieces of data needed for population-focused research
    • Demographic
    • High risk groups
    • Services/providers available
  15. What type of nursing focuses on prevention and promotion at the federal, state, and local level
    Public Health
  16. What are two avenues in which local-level structures provide direct services to the community
    • Community health services
    • Personal Healthcare services
  17. What type of service does local level structures use that includes protection from public health hazards and protection from polluted water, air, tainted food, and unsafe housing
    Community health services
  18. What type of service does local level structures use that include immunizations, family planning, well-infant care, and STD's
    Personal Healthcare services
  19. Name 3 levels of prevention and briefly describe them
    • Primary: Prevent, before it occurs
    • Secondary: Detect problems after they have occurred
    • Tertiary: Reduce effects of illness/injury and restore individuals to optimal health
  20. What criteria is included when considering health of individuals
    • physical
    • social
    • role
    • mental
    • general perceptions of health status
  21. What is a collection of people who interact with one another and whose common interests of characteristics form the basis for a sense of unity and belonging
  22. Name and describe two types of community
    • Geopolitical: location
    • Phenomenological: relational/activity
  23. What is a collection of people who form a group specifically to address a common need or concern
    Community of Solution
  24. What is a group of people having common personal or environmental characteristics and all people defined within a community
  25. What are subgroups or subpopulations that have common characteristics or concerns
  26. What type of nursing focuses on specific groups of people and focus on health promotion and disease prevention regardless of geographic location
    Population-focused nursing
  27. What level of prevention does Population-Based nursing focus on
  28. What percent of individual behaviors lead to premature death
  29. What type of disease is ALWAYS present in a population
  30. What type of disease FLARES UP on occasion within a population
  31. What type of disease EXISTS WITHIN A LARGE proportion of the population
  32. What time period avoided many contagious disease and why
    hunting and gathering because they were scattered
  33. What time period included transmitted diseases such as salmonella, anthrax, Q fever, and TB and why?
    Settled-Village because there was cross-contamination during the process of trying to build water systems
  34. What time period involved a lot of respiratory diseases (TB, pneumonia, and bronchitis) and why
    Industrial due to waste and harsh working conditions
  35. What time period consisted of direct contact diseases such as mumps, measles, influenza, and smallpox and why
    Preindustrial due to rodent infestation bringing disease like the plague
  36. What were the main interventions used to involve early public health efforts in the Classical times
    drainage system, pharmaceutical preparations, embalming the dead, Hygiene code
  37. What was created laws used to govern personal and community hygiene in the classical times
    Hygiene Code
  38. Who did the Greeks believe was responsible for restoration of health and curative medicine
    Goddess Hygeria
  39. What people of the classical error stressed the importance of exercise, rest, and nutrition according to age, sex, and climate
  40. What population of people in the classical times built aqueducts, bathhouses, and sewer systems
  41. Who was responsible for mediating diseases and dispensing meds within Rome or the classical period
  42. Name 4 public health services provided by the Romans in the classical error
    • Water board to maintain aqueducts
    • Supervisor of Public baths
    • Street cleaners
    • Supervision of the sale of food
  43. What did monastaries accomplish during the middle ages
    • built wells/fountains
    • cleaned streets
    • dispose refuse
  44. What period established isolation houses due to the spread of measles, smallpox, diptheria, leprosy, and bubonic plague
    Middle ages
  45. Who were considered physicians and treated the king and noblemen during the middle ages
  46. Who discovered microscopic organisms but did not attribute them to disease during the renaissance period
  47. What population of people in the 18th century was guided by imperialism and industrialization
    Great Britain
  48. What did the Sanitary Revolution accomplish in the 18th century
    created survey methods to study public health problems
  49. Who contributed to the establishment of the General Board of Health for England during the 19th century
  50. What did Chadwick's paper focus on
    child welfare, factory management, education, care for elderly, the sick, and mentally ill
  51. Who discovered that cholera was transmitted through contaminated water in the 19th century
  52. Who in the US was responsible for vital statistics and providing information of environment, food, drug, and communicable disease control in the 19th century
  53. Who was concerned with well-infant/child care, school-age healthcare, mental healthcare, vaccinations, and healthcare education
  54. What country founded district nursing
  55. What type of nursing trained poor women to provide nursing care for poor women
    District nursing
  56. Who discovered the causative agent of cholera and TB
  57. What is healthful living and health promotion that addresses problems holistically using multiple approaches and planning of outcomes for aggregates and populations
  58. What does Pancea focus on
  59. What led to the rise in healthcare costs in Community health nursing
    • movement from rural to urban
    • acceptance of medicine as a science
    • closure of several medical schools
    • improved technology
  60. What type of thinking focuses on modifying economic, political, and environmental factors that are precursors of poor health throughout the world
    Upstream thinking
  61. Who developed the idea of Upstream thinking
  62. What type of thinking focuses on illness care
    downstream thinking
  63. What is the identification and categorization of a condition/behavior as being a disorder requiring medical treatment or intervention
  64. What focuses predominantly on individual and meaning of situations
    Symbolic Interactionism
  65. What brings together 2 theories to address some issue of heath care reform and thinking both upstream and downstream to make health care system changes
    Critical Interactionalism
  66. What guides data-collection and interpretation in a clear and organized manner making it easier for nurses to diagnose and address healthcare problems
    Theory-based practice
  67. What does microscopic focus on? macroscopic?
    • Individual
    • Society
  68. name two types of approaches that are microscopic
    • Orem's Self-care deficit
    • Health-Care behavior model
  69. What approach assumes self-care needs and activities are primary focus of nursing
    Orem's Self-care deficit
  70. What approach focuses on an individual's locus of change? (Act or fail to act)
    Health Behavior Model
  71. What approach places the burden exclusively on the CLIENT
    Health Behavioral model
  72. Give two approaches that are macroscopic
    • Milio's Framework
    • Critical Social Theory Perspective
  73. What approach focuses on the fact that society needs to provide accessible and socially affirming options for nursing intervention at the population level?
    Milio's framework
  74. How does Milio's framework influence community health
    public policy
  75. What approach uses societal awareness and exposure to social inequalities that keep people from reaching their own potential? (SOCIAL CONTROL-Medicalization)
    Critical Social Perspective Theory
  76. What scope of practice's focus is exclusively on intrapatient and nurse patient factors (psychological)
  77. What scope of practice includes many levels of practice within a specialty area
    Theoretical scope
  78. What is any combination of health education r/t organizational, economic, and health environmental supports for behavior of individuals, groups, or communities conductive of health
    Health PROMOTION
  79. What engages with the specific intent to prevent disease, detect disease in early stages, or maximize health within the constraints of the disease
  80. What is determinants of health
    leading health indicators
  81. What is an individual's genetic makeup, family history, and any physical/mental health conditions developed in the course of life
  82. What is an individual's response to internal stimuli and external conditions
  83. What are interactions and relationships with family, friends, coworkers, and others within a community
    Social environment
  84. What is one's belief of the chance of getting a given condition
    Perceived susceptibility
  85. What is one's belief regarding the seriousness of condition
    Perceived Severity
  86. What is one's belief in ability of advised action to reduce health risk or severity of a condition
    Perceived benefits
  87. What is one's belief regarding tangible/psychological cost of advised action
    perceived barriers
  88. What are strategies/conditions in one's environment that activate readiness to take action
    Cues to action
  89. What is one's confidence in one's ability to take action to reduce health risks
  90. What is whether or not important people in one's life approve or disapprove under consideration, weighed by one's motivation to comply with those important persons
    Normative beliefs
  91. What is the probability that a specific event will occurs over a given TIME FRAME
  92. What is exposure associated with a disease
    Risk factor
  93. What is a systematic way of distinguishing the risks posed by potentially harmful exposures
    Risk assessment
  94. 4 components of Risk assessment
    • Hazard identification
    • Risk description
    • Exposure assessment
    • Risk estimation
  95. What is the proactive process in which individuals participate in behaviors that enable them to react to actual/potential threats to their health
    Risk reduction
  96. What is the process through which the public receives information regarding possible or actual threats to health
    Risk communication
  97. What is considered excessive alcohol use
    >2 drinks/day
  98. What is considered binge drinking
    drinking more than 4-5 drinks in a single occassion
  99. What is considered a drink
    any drink containing 0.6 oz of alcohol
  100. What is the amount of a single food item served in a single eating occasion
  101. What is a standardized unit of measuring foods
  102. What model seeks to explain behavioral changes and maintenance of behavior change and to guide health promotion interventions
    Health belief model
  103. What predicts a person's intention to perform or not perform a certain behavior
    Theory of reasoned action
  104. Name 5 steps of Transtheoretical model
    • Precontemplative
    • Contemplative (weigh pros and cons)
    • Preparation (within 1 mo)
    • Action (<6 mo)
    • Maintenance (>6 mo)
  105. What is decisional balance
    pros and cons
  106. What two things regulate sleep
    • amount a person is awake
    • circadian biological clock
  107. BMI considered overweight? Obese?
    • 25-29.9
    • >30
  108. What explores the myriad biopsychosocial factors that influence an individual's pursuit of health
  109. When presented with a large portion size individuals often unknowingly eat larger amounts than they normally would. What is this called?
    Portion distortion
  110. Who defines health as being well and using one's own powers to the fullest extent and that health is maintained through prevention of disease via environmental health factors
  111. Who defines health as positive health symbolizing wellness. It is a value term defined by the culture or individual. Health and illness are considered "to denote behaviors that are of high and low values"
  112. Who defines health as a dynamic state in the life cycle? Illness is an interference in the life cycle. Health is a continuous adaptation to stress in the internal and external environment through the use of one's resources to achieve maximum potential for daily living
  113. Name 3 core functions of Public Health
    • Assessment
    • Policy development
    • Assurance
  114. What were health practices based on in prerecorded historic times
    superstitions and sanitation
  115. What time period includes drainage systems, pharmaceutical preparations, embalming, pollution, hygienic code, and Greek and Roman impacts
    Classical times
  116. What time period includes monasteries, churches enforcing codes, pandemic, and modern health practices like isolation, disinfection, and quarantines
    Middle Ages
  117. What time period developed theories about cause of infection, Leeuwenhook and the microscope, and Elizabethan Poor Laws
  118. What time period includes the industrial revolution, poor children forced into labor, Vaccination and Jenner, and Sanitary revolutions public health reforms
    18th century
  119. What time period includes communicable diseases, chadwick examining death rates in england, establishment of General Board of Health in England 1848, Public health laws enacted, and John Snow demonstrating cholera transmission in water
    19th century
  120. What 3 health laws were enacted in 1849
    • Healthy mental and physical development of citizens
    • Prevention of all dangers to health
    • Control of disease
  121. Who published vital statistics in Massachusetts, called for child health reform
  122. When was the first board of health and AMA established
  123. Who discovered theory of germs, immunizations, and rabies vaccine and when?
    Pasteur (1881-vaccine, 1885-rabies)
  124. WHo discovered causative agent of cholera and TB and when
    Koch, 1882
  125. Who had surgical success with wound care
  126. When did TB surveillance begin
  127. What report outlined shortcomings of US medical schools
  128. What foundations influenced health care efforts
  129. When and who established the first school of public health at John Hopkins
    1916, Rockefeller
  130. When was the District Nursing in England established? Health visiting in Manchester, England?
    • 1850
    • 1862
  131. Who worked with Nightengale to educate health nurses and when
    Rathborne, 1859
  132. When were visiting nurses and the Henry Street Settlement established in the US
  133. Who was the first school nurse and when?
    Linda Rogers, 1902
  134. Who provided home nurses for policyholders and when
    Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 1909
  135. When was the National Organization of Public Health Nurses formed and who was the first president
    1912, Lillian Wald
  136. What framework for prevention includes behavioral patterns of the populations and individuals who make up populations, are a result of habitual selection from limited choices
  137. What does Mileo's Framework challenge
    The common notion that a main determinant for unhealthful behavioral choice is lack of knowledge
  138. What does Bellack say about Nursing and the community
    • The health agenda originates from within the community, not imposed by others
    • Success depends on: listening, being patient, providing accurate and scientifically sound information, respecting the experience of community members
  139. What is Health protection
    behaviors in which one engages with the specific intent to prevent disease, detect disease in the early stages, or maximize health within the constraints of the disease
  140. What is any combination of health education and related organizational, economic, and environmental supports for behavior of individuals, groups, or communities conductive to health (enables people to increase control over and improve their health)
    Health Promotion
  141. Name 6 key elements of Health promotion
    • Regulation via legislation
    • Sanitation
    • Immunization
    • Risk modification
    • Social conditions on health
    • Prep for informed decision making
  142. What are the 2 broad goals of Healthy People 2020
    • Increase quality and healthy years of life
    • Eliminate health disparities
  143. What content is addressed in Healthy People 2020
    • 28 focus areas and priority of action for each
    • Leading health indicators to help track progress toward meeting goals
  144. Name 6 Determinants of Health
    • Biology
    • Behaviors
    • Social environment
    • Physical environment
    • Policies/Interventions
    • Access to quality health care
  145. Name 3 criteria for risk factors
    • Frequency of disease (vary by category or amount of factor)
    • Risk factor must precede onset of disease
    • Association of concern must not be due to any source of error