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Who established a panel of social science experts to review all police research including the question of police effectiveness
The National Academy of Sciences
What is the dominant policing strategy in North America
The standard model of policing
The standard model is characterized by
Its reliance on law enforcement and a lack of focus.
What are some characteristics we find under the standard model of policing
general patrolling to deter offenders
- rapid responses to a wide variety of calls for
- police service
- follow-up investigations of crimes
Public demand to reduce crime, public officials and the press who are wedded to the standard model will request?
more police officers, decreases in response time, greater police visibility, higher success rates in investigations, and more arrests.
What doesn't the press and public officials call
for under the standard model of policing
increased precision as to who, what, when, where, why, and how crimes take place, distinctions among crime types, the involvement of other public and private institutions to address crime, or the application of non-law enforcement alternatives
To have an effect on crime, research strongly suggests that police strategies must include what two elements.
Diversify and Focus
Policing that must address crime and disorder
using a greater range of tools than simply enforcing the law is defined as?
Solid evidence that geographically concentrated enforcement at crime or disorder hot spots can be effective, at least in the short run is defined as
Focused patrolling of very small high-crime
places (e.g., street corners and block faces) has how much effect on crime and a large effect on disorder.
Effective police work requires both
Focused attention and diverse approaches.