Micro Lecture Ch.1

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jskunz
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306872
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Micro Lecture Ch.1
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2016-05-16 19:38:43
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Micro lecture chapter 1
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  1. When and who initially discovered the world of microbes and influenced the creation of microbiology as a science?
    Antony van Leeuwenhoek in 1674, used simple microscope, did first drawings

    Robert Hooke, 1665 - used simple microscope to see bread mold
  2. spontaneous generation
    The idea that worms and other forms of life would arise from non-living material
  3. Who was Francesco Redi
    • an Italian biologist and physician 
    • in 1668 he challenged the spontaneous generation idea
    • placed rotting meat in jar, proved worms found on rotting meat where from fly eggs, not from the rotting meat
    • *He was REDI to prove it wrong!
  4. Who was John Needham
    • in 1749, he experimented with flasks containing various broths (made by soaking hay, chick, or other nutrient in water)
    • gave rise to microorganisms even when flasks were boiled and sealed
    • *believed brief boiling killed all organisms
    • thus, his experiments supported the spontaneous generation idea
    • *Cooking ham makes broths
  5. Who was Father Spallanzani
    • in 1776, the priest and animal physiologist obtained results that contradicted the experiments of Needham
    • No bacteria appeared in his broths after boiling
    • Differed from Needham 2 ways: Spallanzani boiled longer and sealed flasks ~ stayed clean unless flask cracked
    • Argument continued, as heat supposedly destroys "vital force"
    • *Father 'Spank-anzani'... spont gen wrong!
  6. Who was Louis Pasteur
    • French chemist, considered father of modern microbiology
    • disproved spontaneous generation
    • demonstrated air contains microorganisms
    • demonstrated sterile broths in swan necked flasks remained sterile even when left open
    • ended the arguments that unheated air or broths contained "vital force" for spontaneous generation
    • Microbes actually settles in bends and sides of flasks
    • *Pastor corrected spont gener
  7. Who was John Tyndall
    • An English physicist, proved Pasteur correct 
    • Came to discovered there are some microorganisms that are heat resistant and not killed by boiling ~ from trying to boil hay broth that never sterilized
  8. Who was Ferdinand Cohn
    • A german botanist
    • Along with Tyndall, they discovered endospores
  9. endospores
    heat resistant forms of bacteria
  10. Explain why life could not exist w/o microorganisms
    • We depend on microbes to convert Ninto a form other organisms can use
    • Supply of Owould be depleted w/o the production of oxygen during photosynthesis by not only plants but microorganisms
    • Microorganisms are the only organisms that can degrade certain materials, such as cellulose
    • Also play vital role in degrading materials in sewage and wastewater
  11. Examples of microorganisms use in biodegradation
    • bacteria are used to degrade toxic pollutants and to synthesize a variety of different produces:
    • ethanol-used as biofuel
    • hydrogen gas-biofuel
    • oils-possible biofuel
    • insect toxins-used in insecticides
    • Antibiotics
    • amino acids- used as dietary supplements
  12. bioremediation
    a process in which bacteria is added to pollutants to hasten their decay
  13. biotechnology
    • the use of microbiological and biochemical techniques to solve practical problems
    • depends on members of the microbial world
    • Ex: led to genetically engineered plants resistant to many insects & diseases; easier production of meds such as insulin
  14. pathogens
    • microbes that cause disease
    • Ex: smallpox, plague, infuenza
  15. Why do diseases emerge over time
    • Changing lifestyles bring new opportunities for infectious agents to spread
    • Some emerging diseases arise cause the infectious agents change abruptly & can infect new host
  16. How can diseases once under control reemerge
    • In some cases, successful preventive measures become victims of their own success (vaccinations & parents misinfo) 
    • pathogens become resistant to antimicrobial meds
    • travelers and immigrants carry pathogens around the globe
    • populations age or become susceptible to disease
  17. What diseases cause most illness and deaths in world today
    respiratory infections and diarrheal diseases
  18. explain hantavirus
    • virus infects rodents, usually w/o causing disease
    • infected animals shed virus in urine, feces, and saliva
    • from there it's inhaled by humans
    • only one of many emerging human diseases associated w small animals
  19. normal microbiota
    • normal flora,
    • characteristic communities populate all surfaces of the human body
  20. what makes microorganisms excellent model organisms
    • they grow rapidly on simple, inexpensive media
    • growth reveals the same genetic, metabolic, and biochemical principles as higher organisms
  21. Domains
    • classifications which all living organisms can be classified
    • there are 3 distinct domains:
    • Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

    Is the highest level in classification above kingdom
  22. Prokaryote/ Prokaryotic Cell
    • single celled organism consisting of a prokaryotic cell
    • Cell type is characterized by lack of membrane-bound nucleus 
    • Includes members of Bacteria and Archaea
  23. nucleoid
    region within a prokaryotic cell where the genetic material resides
  24. bacteria characteristics
    • are prokaryotes ~ typically lacks membrane bound nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles
    • most have specific shapes, commonly cylindrical (rod-shaped), spherical (round) or spiral
    • typically have rigid cell walls that contain peptidoglycan (a compound unique to bacteria)
    • many can move using flagella
    • typically multiply by binary fission
    • found in all environments
  25. binary fission
    • process in which one cell enlarges and then divides
    • forms two cells, each generally identical to original
  26. archaea characteristics
    • Have a prokaryotic cell structure
    • members of archaea are identical in appearance to bacteria, but are very different in the chemical composition
    • Do Not have peptidoglycan in cell wall
    • Multiply by binary fission
    • Move primarily by flagella
    • Many grow in extreme environments
  27. eucarya
    • members are eukaryotes, meaning they are composed of one or more eukaryotic cells (true nucleus)
    • have membrane-bound nucleus & other organelles, making them more complex than prokaryotes
    • Microbial members include: Algae, fungi, protozoa
  28. Algae
    • a diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotes
    • multiple shapes & sizes
    • can be single or multicellular
    • use sunlight as energy source
    • found near surface of either salt or fresh water
    • cell walls are rigid
    • Some are single celled, others are multicellular
  29. fungi
    • another diverse group of eukaryotes
    • some are single celled yeasts, but many are large multicellular organisms such as molds and mushrooms
    • gain their energy from degrading organic materials and are found wherever organic materials are present
    • mostly live on land
    • have rigid cell wall
  30. protozoa
    • diverse group of microscopic, single-celled organisms
    • live in both aquatic and terrestrial environments
    • unlike algae & fungi, do not have rigid cell wall
    • most ingest organic compounds as food
    • are motile
  31. Explain Binomial System of Nomenclature
    • refers to a 2-word naming system
    • First word in name indicates the genus, with the first letter capitalized
    • Second indicates the species name, not capitalized
    • Genus name commonly appreviated ( E. coli)
    • Both words usually italicized or underlined
  32. Explain "non-living" members of microbial world
    • they are not composed of cells (acellular infectious agents)
    • By definition, an organism must be composed of one or more cells to be alive
    • Non living agents are not microorganisms, so the term microbe is often used
    • Includes viruses, viroids, and prions
  33. Viruses
    • non-living microbe
    • consist of either DNA or RNA packaged within a protein coat
    • come in variety of shapes
    • to multiply, must have host
    • outside of host, viruses are inactive = obligate intracellular parasites
    • can infect all forms of life
  34. viroids
    • consist of a single, short piece of RNA
    • no protein coat
    • multiply only inside cells
    • cause a number of plant diseases
    • no evidence showing they cause disease in humans
    • obligate intracellular agents
  35. Prions
    • consist of only a abnormal form of cellular protein... NO DNA OR RNA
    • are misfolded versions of normal cellular proteins found in brain
    • acquired by eating prion-containing nervous tissues
    • responsible for several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and other animals (Mad Cow, Alzheimers & Parkinsons)
  36. The Golden Age of Microbiology was the time when...
    most pathogenic bacteria were identified
  37. Emerging diseases
    • Swine flu
    • SARS
    • TB
    • Lyme disease
    • Hep C
    • AIDS
    • Mad Cow
    • West nile
  38. Re-emerging diseases
    • measles
    • mumps
    • whooping cough
    • malaria
    • plague
    • yellow fever

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