Chemistry Basics

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Asiannigga123
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Chemistry Basics
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2015-09-01 00:04:41
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chem basics
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  1. Dimensional analysis
    A way to convert units of measurement. We can convert any unit to another unit of the same dimension. Ex. Converting some number of seconds into another unit of time, such as minutes or convert some amount of mass from grams to kilograms or convert lengths such as from kilometers to miles.
  2. Isotopes
    Are atoms with the same number of protons but that have a different number of neutrons. (Since the atomic number is equal to the number of protons and the atomic mass is the sum of protons and neutrons, we can also say that isotopes are elements with the same atomic number but different mass numbers.)
  3. Period
    Horizontal row in a periodic table.
  4. Group
    Vertical column in the periodic table.
  5. Cation
    A positively charged ion. Ex. metal (attracts to the cathode)(has more protons than electrons)
  6. Anion
    A anion is a negatively charged ion. Ex. nonmetals (attracts to the anode)(has more electrons than protons)
  7. Empirical Formula
    Simplest formula. Shows which elements are present in a compound, with their mole ratios indicated as subscripts.
  8. Molecular Formula
    Chemical formula. A Notation that indicates the type and number of atoms in a molecule. Ex. The molecular formula of glucose is C6H12O6, which indicates that a molecule of glucose contains 6 atoms of carbon, 12 atoms of hydrogen, and 6 atoms of oxygen.
  9. Mole
    SI unit for amount of substance. 1 mole of particles is equal to the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
  10. Molar mass
    The mass of one mole of a material. Physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by its amount of substance. Ex. (kg/mol or g/mol)
  11. AMU
    A unit of mass equal to 1/12 of the mass of a carbon-12 nucleus.
  12. Ionic bond
    An attraction between ions of opposite charge. Unlike Covalent bond; Ionic bond formation involves transfer of electrons, and ionic bonding is not directional.
  13. Covalent bond
    A bond between two or more atoms that are sharing electrons.
  14. Hydrated compounds
    Have a specific number of water molecules in their chemical formulas.
  15. Stoichiometry
    A branch of chemistry that quantitatively relates amounts of elements and compounds involved in. (quantitative data)
  16. Acid
    A molecule or other entity that can donate a proton or accept an electron pair in reactions. (Releases hydrogen ions (H+)
  17. Base
    A molecule or other entity that can accepts a proton or donate an electron pair in reactions. (Releases hydroxide ions (OH-)
  18. pH
    A numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.
  19. Molarity
    Concentration of a solution measured as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
  20. Limiting reactant
    The reactant that limits the amount of product produced in a chemical reaction.
  21. SI units
    • -Length - meter     - m
    • -Mass   - kilogram - kg
    • -Time   - second    - s
    • -Electric current - ampere - A
    • -Thermodynamic temp - kelvin - k
    • -Amount of substance - mole - mol
    • -Luminous intensity - Candela - cd
  22. Prefixes and values
    • 1-mono  2-di  3-tri  4-tetra 
    • 5-penta  6-hexa  7-hepta
    • 8-octa  9-nona 10-deca
  23. Sig Figs
    • 0.00280100 - 6 sig fig
    • -leading zeros do not count
    • -zero in between important numbers do count
    • -Trailing zeros do count when there is a decimal.
    • -Any number that is from 1-9 always count

    •    101.?
    • +  89.3
    •   190.3
    •   190 - 2 sig fig
    • -Does not count the .3 because the 101 did not have a decimal.

    • -(1)    0.1  
    •  (2)   0.025
    •          =4    1 sig fig
    • -The answer if 4 with 1 sig fig instead of 4.0 is because you count the sig figs on the equation first the lowest sig fig is the number of sig figs that is going to be in the answer.     

    • -  (2)  0.10
    •    (2)  0.025
    •            =4.0  2 sig figs
    • -The answer is 4.0 because when you first count the equation the least amount of sig fig in the equation is so the answer will have 2 sig figs.
  24. 7 diatomic elements
    • -Hydrogen- H2
    • -Nitrogen- N2
    • -Oxygen- O2
    • -Fluorine- F2
    • -Chlorine- Cl2
    • -Bromine- Br2
    • -Iodine- I2
  25. Valence electrons


    • S block/orbital- 2 electrons
    • P block/orbital- 6 electrons
  26. Polyatomic ions
  27. Naming binary Ionic compounds
    1. The Cation (positive ion) is named first, the Anion second.

    2. Monoatomic Cations take the element name                            

    Na+ --> Sodium  Ca2+ --> Calcium

    3. Monoatomic Anions take the elements name and ends with        "-ide"                                           Cl- --> Chloride                             NaCl --> Sodium Chloride               Li3N --> Lithium Nitride

    Note** Greek prefixes are not used to indicate the number of atoms of each element in the formula unit for the compound (e.g., Na2O is named "sodium oxide" not "disodium oxide", or "disodium monoxide").
  28. Naming binary Covalent Compounds
    Rules

    1. The first element is named first, using the elements name.

    2. Second element is named as an Anion (suffix "-ide")

    3. Prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms

    3. Prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms

    4. "Mono" is not used to name the first element

    Note: when the addition of the Greek prefix places two vowels adjacent to one another, the "a" (or the "o") at the end of the Greek prefix is usually dropped; e.g., "nonaoxide" would be written as "nonoxide", and "monooxide" would be written as "monoxide". The "i" at the end of the prefixes "di-" and "tri-" are never dropped.
  29. Avogadro’s number
    6.0221413e+23
  30. Naming Acids
    Rules for Naming Acids that Do Not Contain Oxygen in the Anion:

    Since all these acids have the same cation, H+, we don't need to name the cation.The acid name comes from the root name of the anion name.The prefix hydro- and the suffix -ic are then added to the root name of the anion.HCl, which contains the anion chloride, is called hydrochloric acid.HCN, which contains the anion cyanide, is called hydrocyanic acid.

    Rules for Naming Oxyacids (anion contains the element oxygen):

    Since all these acids have the same cation, H+, we don't need to name the cation.The acid name comes from the root name of the oxyanion name or the central element of the oxyanion.Suffixes are used based on the ending of the original name of the oxyanion. If the name of the polyatomic anion ended with -ate, change it to -ic for the acid and if it ended with -ite, change it to -ous in the acid.HNO3, which contains the polyatomic ion nitrate, is called nitric acid.HNO2, which contains the polyatomic ion nitrite, is called nitrous acid.
  31. 7 Strong Acids
    HCl - hydrochloric acid

    HBr - hydrobromic acid

    HI - hydroiodic acid

    HNO3 - nitric acid

    HClO3 - chloric acid

    HClO4 - perchloric acid

    H2SO4 - sulfuric acid
  32. 8 Strong Bases





    LiOH - lithium hydroxide

    NaOH - sodium hydroxide

    KOH - potassium hydroxide

    RbOH - rubidium hydroxide

    CsOH - cesium hydroxide

    Ca(OH)2 - calcium hydroxide

    Sr(OH)2 - strontium hydroxide

    Ba(OH)2 - barium hydroxide
  33. 7  Strong Acids
    • 1. Hi
    • 2.  H   Cl
    • 3.   H  Br
    • 4.  H  NO       3
    • 5.   HClO    3
    • 6.  HClO    4
    • 7.   H2 SO        4

    Number 1-7. Than Hi Cl Br subscript 3 subscript 3 subscript 4 subscript4  Skip 4 ClO  ClO is number 4 going to be the same NO so number 7 is SO than add H for all and a 2 subscript for number 7
  34. Atom charges
  35. Polyatomic ions +1 CHARGE
  36. Polyatomic ions  -1 CHARGE






  37. Polyatomic ions  -2 CHARGE




  38. Polyatomic ions  -3 CHARGE
  39. Polyatomic ions  -4 CHARGE

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