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A way to convert units of measurement. We can convert any unit to another unit of the same dimension. Ex. Converting some number of seconds into another unit of time, such as minutes or convert some amount of mass from grams to kilograms or convert lengths such as from kilometers to miles.
Are atoms with the same number of protons but that have a different number of neutrons. (Since the atomic number is equal to the number of protons and the atomic mass is the sum of protons and neutrons, we can also say that isotopes are elements with the same atomic number but different mass numbers.)
A Horizontal row in a periodic table.
A Vertical column in the periodic table.
A positively charged ion. Ex. metal (attracts to the cathode)(has more protons than electrons)
A anion is a negatively charged ion. Ex. nonmetals (attracts to the anode)(has more electrons than protons)
Simplest formula. Shows which elements are present in a compound, with their mole ratios indicated as subscripts.
Chemical formula. A Notation that indicates the type and number of atoms in a molecule. Ex. The molecular formula of glucose is C6H12O6, which indicates that a molecule of glucose contains 6 atoms of carbon, 12 atoms of hydrogen, and 6 atoms of oxygen.
SI unit for amount of substance. 1 mole of particles is equal to the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
The mass of one mole of a material. Physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by its amount of substance. Ex. (kg/mol or g/mol)
A unit of mass equal to 1/12 of the mass of a carbon-12 nucleus.
An attraction between ions of opposite charge. Unlike Covalent bond; Ionic bond formation involves transfer of electrons, and ionic bonding is not directional.
A bond between two or more atoms that are sharing electrons.
Have a specific number of water molecules in their chemical formulas.
A branch of chemistry that quantitatively relates amounts of elements and compounds involved in. (quantitative data)
A molecule or other entity that can donate a proton or accept an electron pair in reactions. (Releases hydrogen ions (H+)
A molecule or other entity that can accepts a proton or donate an electron pair in reactions. (Releases hydroxide ions (OH-)
A numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.
Concentration of a solution measured as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
The reactant that limits the amount of product produced in a chemical reaction.
- -Length - meter - m
- -Mass - kilogram - kg
- -Time - second - s
- -Electric current - ampere - A
- -Thermodynamic temp - kelvin - k
- -Amount of substance - mole - mol
- -Luminous intensity - Candela - cd
Prefixes and values
- 1-mono 2-di 3-tri 4-tetra
- 5-penta 6-hexa 7-hepta
- 8-octa 9-nona 10-deca
- 0.00280100 - 6 sig fig
- -leading zeros do not count
- -zero in between important numbers do count-Trailing zeros do count when there is a decimal.-Any number that is from 1-9 always count
- + 89.3 190.3
- 190 - 2 sig fig
- -Does not count the .3 because the 101 did not have a decimal.
- -(1) 0.1
- (2) 0.025
- =4 1 sig fig
- -The answer if 4 with 1 sig fig instead of 4.0 is because you count the sig figs on the equation first the lowest sig fig is the number of sig figs that is going to be in the answer.
- - (2) 0.10 (2) 0.025
- =4.0 2 sig figs
- -The answer is 4.0 because when you first count the equation the least amount of sig fig in the equation is so the answer will have 2 sig figs.
7 diatomic elements
- -Hydrogen- H2-Nitrogen- N2
- -Oxygen- O2
- -Fluorine- F2
- -Chlorine- Cl2
- -Bromine- Br2
- -Iodine- I2
- S block/orbital- 2 electrons
- P block/orbital- 6 electrons
Naming binary Ionic compounds
1. The Cation (positive ion) is named first, the Anion second.
2. Monoatomic Cations take the element name
Na+ --> Sodium Ca2+ --> Calcium
3. Monoatomic Anions take the elements name and ends with "-ide" Cl- --> Chloride NaCl --> Sodium Chloride Li3N --> Lithium Nitride
Note** Greek prefixes are not used to indicate the number of atoms of each element in the formula unit for the compound (e.g., Na2O is named "sodium oxide" not "disodium oxide", or "disodium monoxide").
Naming binary Covalent Compounds
1. The first element is named first, using the elements name.
2. Second element is named as an Anion (suffix "-ide")
3. Prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms
3. Prefixes are used to denote the number of atoms
4. "Mono" is not used to name the first element
Note: when the addition of the Greek prefix places two vowels adjacent to one another, the "a" (or the "o") at the end of the Greek prefix is usually dropped; e.g., "nonaoxide" would be written as "nonoxide", and "monooxide" would be written as "monoxide". The "i" at the end of the prefixes "di-" and "tri-" are never dropped.
Rules for Naming Acids that Do Not Contain Oxygen in the Anion:
Since all these acids have the same cation, H+, we don't need to name the cation.The acid name comes from the root name of the anion name.The prefix hydro- and the suffix -ic are then added to the root name of the anion.HCl, which contains the anion chloride, is called hydrochloric acid.HCN, which contains the anion cyanide, is called hydrocyanic acid.
Rules for Naming Oxyacids (anion contains the element oxygen):
Since all these acids have the same cation, H+, we don't need to name the cation.The acid name comes from the root name of the oxyanion name or the central element of the oxyanion.Suffixes are used based on the ending of the original name of the oxyanion. If the name of the polyatomic anion ended with -ate, change it to -ic for the acid and if it ended with -ite, change it to -ous in the acid.HNO3, which contains the polyatomic ion nitrate, is called nitric acid.HNO2, which contains the polyatomic ion nitrite, is called nitrous acid.
7 Strong Acids
HCl - hydrochloric acid
HBr - hydrobromic acid
HI - hydroiodic acid
HNO3 - nitric acid
HClO3 - chloric acid
HClO4 - perchloric acid
H2SO4 - sulfuric acid
8 Strong Bases
LiOH - lithium hydroxide
NaOH - sodium hydroxide
KOH - potassium hydroxide
RbOH - rubidium hydroxide
CsOH - cesium hydroxide
Ca(OH)2 - calcium hydroxide
Sr(OH)2 - strontium hydroxide
Ba(OH)2 - barium hydroxide
7 Strong Acids
- 1. Hi
- 2. H Cl
- 3. H Br
- 4. H NO 3
- 5. HClO 3
- 6. HClO 4
- 7. H2 SO 4
Number 1-7. Than Hi Cl Br subscript 3 subscript 3 subscript 4 subscript4 Skip 4 ClO ClO is number 4 going to be the same NO so number 7 is SO than add H for all and a 2 subscript for number 7
Polyatomic ions +1 CHARGE
Polyatomic ions -1 CHARGE
Polyatomic ions -2 CHARGE
Polyatomic ions -3 CHARGE
Polyatomic ions -4 CHARGE