Endocrine- Hypothalamus

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Author:
Mawad
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306875
Filename:
Endocrine- Hypothalamus
Updated:
2015-08-27 16:53:28
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vetmed hypothalamus
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vetmed endocrinology
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  1. What are 2 names for the posterior pituitary gland?
    neurohypophysis, pars nervosa
  2. What are 2 names for the anterior pituitary gland?
    adenohypophysis, pars distalis
  3. What is one example of a positive feedback loop?
    parturition-oxytocin
  4. increase in blood osmolality stimulates osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus--> increase in circulating ________--> increase in ___________--> increases _______ --> decrease in _______--> negative feedback
    vasopressin; permeability of kidney collecting ducts; water resorption in the kidneys; blood osmolarity
  5. The connection b/w the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary is _________; it is called the _________.
    neural; hypothalamohypophyseal tract
  6. The connection b/w the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary is ________, and __________ arise from the _________.
    vascular; portal vessels; median eminence
  7. The portal vessels b/w the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary are outside the __________.
    blood-brain barrier
  8. Long neurons of some hypothalamic nuclei produce hormones that are released from the ___________; the hormones produced by long neurons are...
    posterior pituitary; oxytocin and ADH (antidiuretic hormone/vasopressin)
  9. Oxytocin is produced in the ________ nucleus.
    paraventricular
  10. ADH (vasopressin) is produced in the ________ nucleus.
    supraoptic
  11. Short neurons of some hypothalamic nuclei end in the __________.
    median eminence
  12. The ___________ contains the first capillary bed of the hypothalamic/hypophyseal system.
    median eminence
  13. What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
    temperature regulation, neuroendocrine control, appetitive behavior, defensive reactions, control of body rhythms
  14. Hormone produced in the hypothalamus that promotes growth hormone release.
    growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)
  15. Hormone produced in the hypothalamus that inhibits growth hormone and TSH release.
    somatostatin (growth hormone inhibiting hormone-GHIH)
  16. Hormone produced in the hypothalamus that inhibits PRL (prolactin) release.
    dopamine
  17. Hormone produced in the hypothalamus that promotes FSH and LH release.
    gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
  18. Hormone produced in the hypothalamus that promotes ACTH release.
    corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
  19. Hormone produced in the hypothalamus that promotes TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) and PRL release.
    Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
  20. __________ of __________ inhibit hypothalamic release of hypothalamic hormones.
    Short-loop feedback system; pituitary hormones
  21. The portal system transports a group of hypothalamic hormones that are synthesized within cell bodies of specific nuclei and released at the ends of the _________.
    short neural axons
  22. Hormones released from short neural axons first enter the __________ and are moved to the __________, where they enter the _________; then, they exit the blood and bathe the ________, regulating the __________ from the _________.
    first bed of the portal system; adenohypophysis; second bed of the portal system; cells of the anterior pituitary; release of hormones; adenohypophysis
  23. What is the primary stimulus of thirst?
    plasma osmolality increase
  24. What are the stimuli for secretion of oxytocin?
    mammary gland stimulation, cervical stimulation
  25. What are the effects of oxytocin? (4)
    milk letdown, uterine contraction, role in luteolysis, increases bonding b/w conspecifics
  26. Uterine contraction is stimulated by _________, enhanced by _________, and inhibited by _________.
    oxytocin; estrogen tone; progesterone
  27. Vasopressin =
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  28. What are the 3 types of receptors that bind vasopressin?
    V1A, V1B (vasoconstriction); V2 (regulates water loss)
  29. What are the effects of vasopressin? (5)
    increase BP, increase permeability of renal collecting duct to water, increase renal water absorption, concentrates urine, decreases osmolality of body fluids
  30. What happens when vasopressin (ADH) is absent?
    dehydration, PU/PD
  31. With what disorder does the pituitary fail to produce vasopressin?
    diabetes insipidus
  32. What test do you use to diagnose diabetes insipidus?
    water deprivation test
  33. What 6 hormones are released by the anterior pituitary?
    ACTH, TSH, GH, FSH, LH, PRL
  34. Hypothalamic hypophysiotropic hormones.
    releasing hormones
  35. Releasing hormones are highing in conc in the _________.
    hypophysial portal blood
  36. Releasing hormones are released from the ___________.
    median eminence
  37. What are the primary effects of GnRH?
    stimulates FSH and LH secretion
  38. What are the primary effects of TRH?
    stimulates prolactin and TSH release
  39. What are the primary effects of somatostatin?
    inhibits TSH and GH release
  40. What are the primary effects of CRH?
    stimulates secretion of ACTH and beta-lipotropin
  41. 7 releasing hormones.
    CRH, TRH, GRH, somatostatin/GIH, GnRH, PIH, PRH(?)
  42. What are the signs of hypothalamic disease?
    neurologic deficits- eye signs, headache, vomiting, sleepiness, seizures; endocrine changes- precocious puberty, hypogonadism, diabetes insipidus; metabolic abnormalities- hyperphagia, obesity, hyperthermia

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