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The moon has been a cause of wonder
Strange beings called werewolves
los seres extraños, los hombres lobos
the hugeness of space
la inmensidad del espacio
rocks and other materials were knocked loose
soltando rocas y otras materiales
It gets hit by a lot of debris from space
President John F Kennedy:
We chose to go tot he moon in this decade and do other things not because they are easy but because they are hard.
- President John F Kennedy:
- Elegimos ir a la luna en esta década y hacer lo demás, no porque sean metas fáciles, sino porque son difíciles.
The moon doesn't shine on its own. It shines back.
La luna no brilla con luz propia, sino refleja luz del sol.
crescent moons or half moons
luna creciente y media luna
The moon's gravity pulls our oceans
LA gravedad de la luna hala nuestros oceanos.
How are simultaneous and consecutive similar?
- Same intellectual activities
added difficulty for simultaneous interpreter?
way to remedy
can feel cut-off being in the booth
should use eye-contact, hand gestures
two fundamental extra difficulties of simultaneous:
-acoustic : speak and listen at the same time
-intellectual : don't know where speech is going, neither micro nor macro
right handed interpreter should cover?
left ear and use to hear source language.
how loud should the source language be?
as low as possible to be able to hear both source and target.
How loud should you speak?
normal conversational voice.
what should sound output be like?
as regular as possible. spekaing 30 cm from microphone, maintain even output
what is simultaneous interpretation without equipment called?
must ensure conditionals are appropriate.
What should a simultaneous interpreter do in poor working conditions?
- - do not attempt to interpret.
- -inform organizers
- -cease work or offer consecutive
- -wait for necessary arangements
How can you improve increased risk of error due to split concentration - listening to source and target at same time?
- - consciously monitor self
- -maximum concentration
- - ignore unknown words
- -don't hedge around ideas
what should you be listening for in simultaneous?
- - correct
- -semantic sense
rules for simultaneous speaking:
- -short, simple sentences
- -make sure each sentence makes sense, grammatically and logically
- -finish sentences!
10 golden rules:
- 1- make best use of technical facilities
- 2- make sure can hear self and speaker
- 3- don't attempt to interpret something not heard
- 4- maximize concentration
- 5- don't be distracted by problem words
- 6- cultivate split attention - analysis of source, critical of target
- 7- use short simple sentences
- 8 - be grammatical
- 9- make sense in every sentence
- 10- always finish sentences
when to start speaking?
- - say something almost immediately
- -as soon as possible
- - as soon as able to say something meaningful: unit of meaning
- - as soon as able to finish a sentence
how long is a unit of meaning?
- can be a word or 7 or 8
- - the length of an oral pasage that can remain present to the ear at any given moment
what distance should one remain behind the speaker?
- - constant distance, continue as begun
- -ideally one unit of meaning
- - when a new sentence can be formed.
- - try to finish at the same time as the speaker.
what should interpreter do in reformulation?
- - same effect on target audience as on source audience
- - render ideas of speaker while respecting forms of target language
what to do where an unknown word is used?
- -use generic term for specific
- -express idea without word
- -don't be alone in booth
- -make use of technology
- -honestly inform audience
what is the salami technique?
slice up source message into digestible chunks -short sentences
what is efficiency in reformulation?
- exploit common knowledge
- make reference back
- use abbreviations
- remove fillers
- omit repititions
- cut out double adjectives
- cut out verbosity where appropriate
what is the simplification technique?
interpret unfamiliar jargon in everyday language