Repro- Differentiation and Development

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Author:
Mawad
ID:
306922
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Repro- Differentiation and Development
Updated:
2015-09-21 10:53:59
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vetmed repro
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vetmed reproductive system
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  1. Most reproductive organs originate from the ______.
    mesoderm
  2. What is the exception to reproductive organs originating from the mesoderm?
    vagina/vestibule, penis/clitoris originate from the ectoderm
  3. In the 1 week old embryo, primordial germ cells migrate from the _______ into the _______.
    yolk sac; genital ridge
  4. Paramesonephric ducts aka=
    Mullerian ducts
  5. In a _______, the mullerian ducts differentiate into... (4)
    female; fallopian tubes, uterus, cerix, cranial vagina
  6. Mesonephric duct aka=
    Wolffian duct
  7. In a _______, the Wolffian duct differentiates into... (4)
    male; epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory duct
  8. What is required for development of the male gonads?
    SRY segment of the Y chromosome, which encodes Testis Determining Factor (TDF)
  9. Is hormone required for determination of gonadal sex?
    NO; it is determined by sex chromosome
  10. Is hormone required for differentiation of genital sex?
    YES; hormones are required for formation of genitalia
  11. _______ is required for Wolffian ducts to develop.
    Testosterone
  12. ________ causes regression of Mullerian ducts in males.
    AMH (anti-mullerian hormone)
  13. What controls the determination of genital sex in females?
    no testosterone- wolffian duct regresses; no AMH- mullerian ducts develop
  14. Describe the series of events that occurs in development of the male reproductive system.
    XY--> SRY--> encodes TDF--> testis develop--> sertoli cells secrete AMH--> AMH causes leydig cells to differentiate and the degeneration of the mullerian ducts--> leydig cells secrete testosterone--> testosterone causes the development of the wolffian ducts--> wolffian ducts differentiate to epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts
  15. Describe the series of events that occurs in development of the female reproductive tract.
    XX--> no SRY--> no TDF--> ovaries develop--> no AMH--> mullerian ducts develop--> mullerian ducts differentiate to oviducts, uterus, cervix, cranial vagina
  16. MIS androgens are another name for _______.
    AMH
  17. White heifer disease is a _______ condition that is caused by...
    congenital; single recessive sex-linked to the gene for white color
  18. What reproductive abnormalities occur with white heifer disease?
    abnormalities in the cranial vaginal, cervix, uterus (due to abnormality of mullerian ducts); ovarian development is NORMAL
  19. Why is ovarian development normal in animals with white heifer disease?
    b/c the ovaries come from the undifferentiated gonad, NOT the mullerian duct
  20. What is it called when white heifer disease only affects one horn?
    uterine unicornis
  21. What defects are most common in shorthorn cattle with white heifer disease?
    hymenal defects
  22. Undifferentiated external genitalia.
    anlage tissues
  23. What are the four types of anlages tissues?
    genital tubercle, genital swelling, urethral folds, urogenital sinus
  24. Formation of external genitalia in males is _______ driven by ________ in circulation, which is converted to _________ in anlage tissues.
    hormonally; testosterone; dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
  25. Dihydrotestosterone causes differentiation of ________ into __(4)__.
    anlage tissues; glans penis, scrotum, prostate, and urethra and corpus spongiosum
  26. DHT causes the ________ to differentiate into the glans penis.
    genital tubercle
  27. DHT causes the ________ to differentiate, fold, and fuse to form the scrotum.
    genital swelling
  28. DHT causes the ________ to differentiate and enclose the penile urethra and corpus spongiosum.
    urethral folds
  29. DHT causes the _________ to differentiate into the prostate gland.
    urogenital sinus
  30. Do females need hormones for differentiation of external genitalia?
    NO, but estrogen is required to promote growth to normal size
  31. In a female, the ________ will differetiate to the clitoris.
    genital tubercle
  32. In a female, the _______ will differentiate o the labia majora.
    genital swelling
  33. In a female, the ________ will differentiate into the labia minora.
    urethral folds
  34. In a female, the ________ will differentiate into the caudal vagina and vestibule.
    urogenital sinus
  35. What is the physiologic cause of freemartinism?
    in cows, there is an anastomosis in placental circulation b/w twins; therefore, the female calf is exposed to testosterone from the male calf, which develops slightly earlier
  36. With freemartinism, there is exchange of cells b/w twins, therefore...
    up to 95% of a freemartins blood cells can be derived from the twin (and thus will be XY instead of XX--> this may lead to subfertility in the male twin)
  37. What drives the sexual differentiation of the brain?
    pattern of gonadotropin release(constant in males and cyclic in females)
  38. Estrodial is _______; therefore, it can normally cross cell membranes.
    lipid-soluble
  39. When ______ binds to estradiol in females, it becomes ___________; therefore, there is more _______ in circulation. This leads to...
    alphaFP; too big to cross the BBB; estradiol; formation of a surge-center in the brain, allowing for cyclic surges of gonadotropin release for ovulation
  40. How does defeminization of the brain occur in males?
    males have testosterone in circulation (not estradiol); testosterone does not bind alphaFP, so it is able to enter the brain, where it is converted to estradiol; this prevents development of the surge center and males constantly release low levels of gonadotropin
  41. _______ converts testosterone to estradiol in the male brain.
    Aromatase
  42. On day 21 of the estrus cycle, _______ from the hypothalamus causes release of __(2)__ from the pituitary, which causes...
    GnRH; LH and FSH; ovulation and lutinization--> negative feedback to FSH and positive feedback to GnRH
  43. Multiple genotypes from the same zygote.
    mosaic
  44. Multiple genotypes from different zygotes.
    chimera
  45. How do mosaic organisms occur?
    mutation
  46. How do chimera organisms occur?
    embryo fusion, fertilization of polar body
  47. What enzyme is not inactivated in barr bodies?
    steroid sulfatase--> causes softer skin and finer hair in females
  48. How do you get a male calico cat?
    Klinefelter's syndrome
  49. Testicular dysgenesis is caused by __________.
    kinefelter's syndrome
  50. What are the results klinefelter's syndrome? (6)
    XXY, testicular hypoplasia, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm, lack secondary sex characteristics
  51. Ovarian dysgenesis is caused by ________.
    Turner's syndrome
  52. What are the results of Turner's syndrome? (6)
    XO, infertility, small stature, no estrus, underdeveloped repro tract, vestigial gonads
  53. Describe a true hermaphrodite.
    intra-abdominalovotestis or one testis/one ovary
  54. What is a pseudohermaphrodite?
    disagreement b/w gonads and phenotype; name based on gonads
  55. A male pseudohermaphrodite has _________; genotype is __(2)__; there is ________ insensitivity.
    testes; XX+SRY or XY; androgen
  56. Describe the external genitalia of a male pseudohermaphrodite.
    feminized external genitalia
  57. A female pseudohermaphrodite has _________; the genotype is ______; the internal genitalia and ovaries are _________; it occurs because of...
    ovaries; XX; normal; androgen exposure of the fetus
  58. An example of female pseudohermaphrodite.
    free martin
  59. What is the result of translocation of the SRY gene to the X chromosome, for a genotype of XX,SRY+?
    male phenotype, testes, ovotestes, or enlarged clitoris
  60. What is the result of deletion of the SRY gene from the Y chromosome, for a genotype of XY,SRY-?
    female phenotype, small ovaries, ovotestes
  61. Androgen insensitivity causes _________; there is an _______ genotype.
    testicular feminization; XY
  62. With androgen insensitivity, _________ is produced, but there is a defective _________; animal is phenotypically ______ but lacks ___________.
    testosterone; androgen receptor; female; tubular genitalia
  63. Why do animals with androgen insensitivity lack tubular genitalia?
    AMH is developed in testes--> mullerian duct regresses; testes are underdeveloped--> less testosterone--> wolffian duct regresses
  64. Polledness in goats is caused by ________, which is linked to ________.
    a dominant gene; infertility in homozygous dominant animals

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