GU Research Quiz 1
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. What would you like to do?
People who provide info to the researchers (investigators) in a quantitative study.
SUBJECTS or study participants
People who provide information to the researchers in a study for qualitative research.
INFORMANTS or study participants
The more specific places within a site where data collection occurs.
Qualitative researchers investigate _____ and ______, which are abstractions or mental representations inferred from behavior or characteristics.
concepts and phenomenon (or constructs)
Concepts are the building blocks of _____, which are systematic explanations of some aspect of the real world.
In quantitative studies, concepts are called ________.
A characteristic or quality that takes on different values.
Groups that are varied with respect to an attribute.
Groups with limited variability.
What are continuous variables? Example?
They can take on an infinite range of values along a continuum (ex: weight)
What are discrete variables? Example?
They have a finite number of values b/w two points (ex: number of kids)
What are categorical variables? Example?
They have distinct categories that do not represent a quantity (ex: gender)
What is the dependent (or outcome) variable?
The behavior or characteristic the researcher is interested in explaining, predicting, or affecting.
What is the independent variable?
The presumed cause of, antecedent to, or influence on the dependent variable.
A ____ _____ describes the abstract or theoretical meaning of a concept being studied.
What is an operational definition?
It specifies procedures required to measure a variable.
Numeric values of data.
In a ______ relationship, variables are related in a noncausal way.
What is a basic distinction b/w experimental research and nonexperimental (or observational) research?
- Experimental: researchers actively intervene
- Observational: they make observations of existing phenomena w/o intervening
What is the grounded theory?
seeks to describe and understand key social psychological processes that occur in a social setting.
This tradition of qualitative research focuses on the lives experiences of humans and is an approach to learning what the life experiences of people are like and what they mean.
An example of phenomenology.
perceived barriers to health care
Nightshift nurses in surgical trauma ICU at an urban university hospital is an example of what type of research?
What is ethnography?
It provides a framework for studying the meanings and life ways of a culture in a holistic fashion; HOW A SPECIFIC CULTURE VIEWS THE WORLD (their perspective)
The main phases in a quantitative study.
What does the conceptual phase of a quantitative study involve?
- defining the problem 2B studied
- doing a lit review
- clinical fieldwork
- developing a framework & conceptual definitions
- formulating hypotheses 2B tested
What does the planning phase of a quantitative study involve?
- selecting a research design
- developing intervention protocols (if experimental)
- specify population
- dev a sampling plan
- specify methods to measure variables
- dev strategies to safeguard rts of participants
- finalize research plan
What does the empirical phase of a quantitative study involve?
- collecting data
- preparing data for analysis
What does the dissemination phase of a quantitative study involve?
- communicating findings in a research report
- promoting use of study evidence in nursing practice
The flow of activities in a _______ study are more flexible and less linear
_______ studies typically involve an emergent design that evolves during fieldwork.
Qualitative researchers begin with a _____ question regarding a _______, often focusing on a little-studied aspect.
What is saturation?
redunancy of information
What is an IMRAD format?
- Introduction (explanation of study)
- Method section (strategies used)
- Results section (findings)
- Discussion (interpretation of findings)
_______ research reports are more impersonal and report on statistical tests.
What does it mean if a finding is statistically significant?
they have a high probability of being "real."
_______ tests are procedures for testing research hypotheses and evaluating the believability of the findings.
Researchers communicate their aims as one of these.
- problem statements
- statements of purpose
- research questions
What is a statement of purpose?
- summarizes overall study goal
- identifies key concepts (variables) and the population
A statement of purpose often communicates whether study is experimental or nonexperimental in ________ studies.
A statement of purpose often communicates the underlying research tradition of _________ studies
What is a moderator variable?
affects the strength or direction of a relationship b/w the independent and dependent variables
What are mediating variables?
- they intervene b/w the independent and dependent variable
- they help to explain why the relationship exists
What is a simple hypothesis?
a predicted relationship b/w one independent variable and dependent variable
What is a complex hypothesis?
an anticipated relationship b/w two or more independent variables and two or more dependent variables
What is a directional hypothesis?
Predicts the direction of a relationship
In _____ studies, a hypothesis is a statement of predicted relationships b/w two or more variables.
What is a nondirectional hypothesis?
predicts the existence of relationships, not their direction
What do research hypotheses predict?
the existence of relationships
What is a null hypothesis?
it expresses the absence of a relationship & are subjected to statistical testing
Grounded theory researchers are likely to ask ______ questions.
Phonomenologists are likely to ask ______ questions.
Ethnographers are likely to ask ______ questions.
A ______ is the overall plan for obtaining answers to the research questions in a quantitative study.
What would you like to do?
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