CFM 1: DNA Replication/Repair

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CFM 1: DNA Replication/Repair
2015-08-27 17:21:58
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  1. DNA polymerase alpha, delta, and epsilon and their function
    • Alpha: primer function
    • Delta: proofreading in lagging strand, NER, BER
    • Epsilon: proofreading in leading strand, NER, BER
  2. Triple cocktail
    combination of 3 different antiviral drugs that target HIV reverse transcriptase to treat HIV; 3 drugs are needed because resistance occurs over time
  3. Topoisomerase
    Reduces torsional stress in DNA by nicking the DNA
  4. Topoisomerase inhibition
    Cancer drugs can block topoisomerase from being regenerated, leading to collapse of the replication fork when polymerase reaches the DNA-topoisomerase complex
  5. Nucleotide excision repair
    used to remove pyrimidine dimers caused by UV light; xeroderma pigmentosum mutation of genes involved in NER
  6. Mismatch repair mechanism
    • MutSa recognizes mismatch
    • MutLa nicks the nascent strand
    • Exonuclease removes part of nascent strand
    • DNA pol-delta fills it back in
    • DNA ligase connects it back together
  7. Lynch syndrome
    Hereditary cancer predisposition, caused by defects in human mismatch repair genes; characterized by microsatellite instability
  8. Microsatellite Instability
    • Slippage/expansion of microsatellite (repeat) sequences are typically corrected by mismatch repair
    • When this does not happen, microsatellite instability occurs
  9. Cisplatin
    Chemotherapy drug that forms intra-strand cross links with DNA, signaling apoptosis; problem is that it does not selectively attack cancer cells
  10. ATM
    Kinase that can phosphorylate numerous factors, including p53, to block cell cycle progression and signal apoptosis or senescence