Unit 1 Basic Concepts

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ceilingmoth
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Unit 1 Basic Concepts
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2015-10-06 18:15:39
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Logic
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unit 1 terms
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  1. Logic
    the organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates arguments
  2. Argument
    group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the others (the conclusion).
  3. Statement
    a sentence that is either true or false
  4. Truth value (2 possible in a statement)
    Truth and falsity
  5. Premise
    the statements that set forth the reasons or evidence (support argument)
  6. Conclusion
    the statement that the evidence is claimed to support or imply
  7. Premise indicators
    indicator words that provide clues in identifying premises
  8. Conclusion indicators
    indicator words that provide clues in identifying conclusion
  9. Inference(strict / narrow)
    the reasoning process expressed by an argument
  10. Inference (loose / broad)
    used interchangeably with “argument.”
  11. Proposition(strict / narrow)
    the meaning or information content of a statement
  12. Proposition (loose / broad)
    "statement"
  13. Warning
    form of expression that is intended to put someone on guard against a dangerous or detrimental situation
  14. Piece of advice
    form of expression that makes a recommendation about some future decision or course of conduct
  15. (2) non inferential types of statements - contain premises or conclusions (or both)
    • 1. warning
    • 2. piece of advice
  16. Statement of belief or opinion
    an expression about what someone happens to believe or think about something
  17. Loosely associated statements
    may be about the same general subject, but they lack a claim that one of them is proved by the others
  18. Report
    consists of a group of statements that convey information about some topic or event
  19. Expository passage
    a kind of discourse that begins with a topic sentence followed by one or more sentences that develop the topic sentence.

    If the objective is not to prove the topic sentence but only to expand it or elaborate it, then there is no argument
  20. Illustration
    an expression involving one or more examples that is intended to show what something means or how it is done.
  21. Explanation
    expression that purports to shed light on some event or phenomenon.
  22. Explanans
    the statement or group of statements that purports to do the explaining
  23. Explanandum
    the statement that describes the event or phenomenon to be explained
  24. Conditional statement
    - an “if . . . then . . .” statement
  25. Antecedent
    The component statement immediately following the “if” in a conditional statement
  26. Consequent
    The component statement following "then" in a conditional statement
  27. Deductive argument
    an argument incorporating the claim that it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.
  28. Inductive argument
    an argument incorporating the claim that it is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true-involve probabilistic reasoning.
  29. Argument based on mathematics
    an argument in which the conclusion depends on some purely arithmetic or geometric computation or measurement
  30. Argument from definition
    an argument in which the conclusion is claimed to depend merely on the definition of some word or phrase used in the premise or conclusion
  31. categorical syllogism
    syllogism in which each statement begins with one of the words “all,” “no,” or “some.”
  32. Prediction
    an argument that proceeds from our knowledge of the past to a claim about the future
  33. Argument from analogy
    an argument that depends on the existence of an analogy, or similarity, between two things or states of affairs.
  34. Argument based on signs
    an argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a sign to a claim about the thing or situation that the sign symbolizes
  35. Sign
    any kind of message (usually visual) produced by an intelligent being
  36. Casual inference
    an argument that proceeds from knowledge of a cause to a claim about an effect, or, conversely, from knowledge of an effect to a claim about a cause
  37. Valid deductive argument
    an argument in which it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true
  38. Invalid deductive argument-
    deductive argument in which it is possible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true.
  39. Sound argument
    deductive argument that is valid and has all true premises.

    Both conditions must be met for an argument to be sound; if either is missing the argument is unsound
  40. Strong inductive argument
    an inductive argument in which it is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true
  41. Weak inductive argument
    an argument in which the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises, even though it is claimed to
  42. Cogent argument
    an inductive argument that is strong and has all true premises.
  43. Argument form
    • Premise 1
    • Premise 2
    • Conclusion

    • All A are B. -All daisies are flowers.
    • All B are C. -All flowers are plants.
    • All A are C. -Therefore, all daisies are plants.
  44. Substitution instance
    Any argument such as this that is produced by uniformly substituting terms or statements in place of the letters in an argument form
  45. Counterexample
    isolating the form of an argument and then constructing a substitution instance having true premises and a false conclusion
  46. What proves the form invalid, which in turn proves the argument invalid?
    Counterexample
  47. What can be used to prove the invalidity of any invalid argument, but it cannot prove the validity of any valid argument?
    Counterexample
  48. What kind of argument requires premises must be true in the sense of meeting the total evidence requirement
    cogent argument
  49. When does the conclusion in fact follow probably from the premises?
    Strong inductive argument
  50. When does conclusion not follow with strict necessity from the premises, even though it is claimed to?
    invalid deductive argument
  51. When does conclusion follow with strict necessity from the premises?
    valid deductive argument
  52. Hypothetical syllogism
    deductive argument syllogism in which there are three conditional statements, two conditional premises and one conditional conclusion

    • If p, then q
    • If q, then r
    • If p, then r
  53. Modus ponens -"affirming mode" - deductive argument syllogism in which there are three statements, with one premise as a conditional statement, the second premise, and the conclusion
    "affirming mode" - deductive argument syllogism in which there are three statements, with one premise as a conditional statement, the second premise, and the conclusion

    • If p, then q
    • P
    • Q
  54. Modus tollens
    "denying mode" - deductive argument syllogism in which the first premise is a conditional statement, the second premise negates the firstpremise, and the conclusion negates the first premise

    • If p, then q
    • Not q
    • Not p
  55. Denying the antecedent
    • deductive argument syllogism in which the first premise is a conditional statement, the second premise negates the first premise's
    • antecedent, and the conclusion negates the first premise's consequent

    • If p, then q
    • Not p
    • Not q
  56. Affirming the consequent
    deductive argument syllogism in which the first premise is a conditional statement, the second premise confirms the first premise's consequent, and the conclusion states the antecedent of the first premise

    • If p, then q
    • q
    • p
  57. Disjunctive syllogism
    deductive argument with "either/or "statement. there are two disjunctive statements in a disjunctive syllogism, which state a truth value relationship

    • Either p or q
    • Not p
    • q
  58. Constructive dilemma
    deductive argument which has three premises, the first being a conditional statement of one type, the second being a conditional statement of another type, the third being a disjunctive statement of the first two premise, and the conclusion being a disjunctive statement of the second type

    • If p, then q
    • If r, then s
    • Either p or r
    • Either q or s
  59. Destructive dilemma
    • deductive argument which has three premises, the first being a conditional statement of one type, the second being a conditional statement of another type, the third being a disjunctive statement of
    • the first two premise, and the conclusion being a disjunctive statement of the second type negating the premises.

    • If p, then q
    • If r, then s
    • Either not q, or not s
    • Either not p, or not r
  60. Logical relationships (5)
    • Comparison
    • Temporal relations
    • Spatial relations
    • Family relations
    • Identity
  61. Identity formats (2)
    • A = B (A is identical to B)
    • pA (property of A)
    • pB (property of B)

    • Pa (Property of A)
    • Not Pb (not a Property of B)
    • A =/ B (A is not identical to B)

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