Neuro- Structure cont...

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Mawad
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307000
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Neuro- Structure cont...
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2015-09-01 15:36:20
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vetmed neuroanatomy
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vetmed neuroanatomy
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  1. GSA and GVA arise from the _______.
    alar plate
  2. GSE and GVE arise from the ________.
    basal plate
  3. What 3 structures are located on the ventral surface of the myelencephalon?
    pyramids, olive, trapezoid body
  4. What are the left an right pyramids separated by?
    ventral median fissure
  5. 75% of fibers from the pyramids descend as __________ after __________; 25% continue _________ into the spinal cord as __________, which cross at _________.
    lateral corticospinal tract; decussation; ipsilaterally; ventral corticospinal tract; site of synapse
  6. The olive is the site of...
    synapse of the extra-pyramidal motor system.
  7. The pyramid regulates and controls ________.
    motor activity
  8. Where is the olive located?
    half way down the length of the pyramids, within the myenecephalon
  9. Where is the trapezoid body located?
    at the rostral limit of the myelenecephalon
  10. What is the function of the trapezoid body?
    auditory system
  11. What is the dorsal surface of the myelencephalon characterized by?
    tracts and the fourth ventricle
  12. Where is the fasciculus gracilis located?
    on the dorsal surface of the myelencephalon, on either side of the ventral median sulcus
  13. What controls conscious proprioception from the pelvic limb?
    fasciculus gracilis
  14. What 4 structures are located on the dorsal surface of the myelencephalon?
    fasciculus gracilis, fasciculus cuneatus, spinal tract if the trigeminal nerve, obex
  15. What controls conscious proprioception from the thoracic limb?
    fasciculus cuneatus
  16. Where is the fasciculus cuneatus located?
    lateral to the fasciculus gracilis on the dorsal surface of the myelencephalon
  17. What does the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve control?
    pain and temperature sensation from the head and face
  18. Where is the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve located?
    lateral to the fasciculus cuneatus on the dorsal surface of the myelencephalon
  19. What is the obex?
    landmark at the caudal angle of the fourth ventricle in the myelencephalon
  20. What is the medullary velum?
    thin layer of ependyma and pia mater that forms the roof over the cavity of the fourth ventricle
  21. Where is the caudal medullary velum located?
    dorsal surface of the myelencephalon
  22. Where is the rostral medullary velum?
    dorsal surface of the metencephalon
  23. Where is the sulcus limitans located?
    groove in the lateral wall of the fourth ventricle, where the wall meets the floor
  24. What and where is the dorsal median sulcus?
    continuation from the spinal cord in the midline of the floor of the fourth ventricle
  25. What cranial nerve(s) is/are located in the myelencephalon?
    CN 6-12
  26. What 3 structures make up the closed portion of the myelencephalon?
    fasciculus gracilis, fasciculus cuneatus, spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve
  27. What 2 structures are located on the ventral surface of the metencephalon?
    transverse fibers of the pons,longitudinal fibers of the pons
  28. What are the transverse fibers of the pons?
    pyramidal motors fibers going into the cerebellum
  29. The transverse fibers of the pons become the _________.
    middle cerebellar peduncle
  30. What are the longitudinal fibers of the pons?
    pyramidal motor fibers going through the brainstem into the spinal cord
  31. What 2 structures are located on the dorsal surface of the metencephalon?
    cerebellum, cerebellar peduncles
  32. What are the functions of the cerebellum?
    coordinates, integrates, and regulates motor activity with sensory information
  33. What are the functions of the cerebellar peduncles?
    sensory and motor; connects cerebellum to brainstem
  34. What cranial nerve(s) is/are located in the metencephalon?
    CN 5
  35. What 2 structures are on the ventral surface of the mesencephalon?
    crus cerebri, interpeduncular fossa
  36. What is the crus cerebri?
    descending pyramidal motor pathway
  37. Where are the left and right crus cerebri located?
    on the floor of the mesencephalon
  38. Where is the interpeduncular fossa located?
    space b/w the left and right crus cerebri
  39. What structure is located on the dorsal surface of the mesencephalon?
    corpora quadrigemina
  40. What are the components of the corpora quadrigemina?
    left and right rostral and caudal colliculi
  41. What is the purpose of the right and left rostral colliculus?
    visual reflexes
  42. What is the purpose of the left and right caudal colliculus?
    auditory reflexes
  43. What part of the ventricular system is located within the mesencephalon?
    mesencephalic aqueduct
  44. What cranial nerve(s) is/are located in the mesencephalon?
    CN 3-4
  45. What is the only cranial nerve that comes off the dorsal surface of the dorsal surface?
    CN 4
  46. What 4 structures are located on the ventral surface of the diencephalon?
    mamillary bodies, tuber cinereum, optic chiasm, optic tract
  47. Where are the mamillary bodies located?
    on the floor of the hypothalamus on the ventral surface of the diencephalon
  48. What are the purposes of the mamillary bodies?
    site of synpase for emotions and ANS
  49. Where is the tuber cinereum located?
    b/w the mamillary bodies and optic chiasm on the ventral surface of the diencephalon
  50. What is the purpose of the tuber cinereum?
    site of attachment for the pituitary gland
  51. What is the function of the optic chiasm?
    site of decussation for CN II (vision)
  52. What is the optic tract?
    visual pathway
  53. What 5 structures are on the dorsal surface of the diencephalon?
    medial and lateral geniculate bodies, third ventricle, interthalamic adhesion, pineal body
  54. The third ventricle is within the _______; it wraps around the ________.
    diencephalon; interthalamic adhesion
  55. What is the interthalamic adhesion?
    cut surface of the thalamus as seen on the midline
  56. What structures make up the metathalamus?
    medial and lateral geniculate bodies
  57. What forms the epithalamus?
    pineal body
  58. What is the function of the pineal body?
    releases melatonin to regulate sleep patterns and circadian rhythm
  59. What cranial nerve(s) is/are located within the diencephalon?
    CN 2
  60. What 2 structures are on the ventral surface of the telencephalon?
    olfactory bulb, piriform lobe
  61. What is the function of the olfactory bulb?
    site of synapse for the olfactory n. (CN I)
  62. What is the function of the piriform lobe?
    olfactory cortex, where smelling is perceived
  63. What 3 structures are on the dorsal surface of the telencephalon?
    gyrus/gyri, sulcus/sulci, cerebral hemispheres
  64. What separates the cerebral hemispheres?
    longitudinal cerebral fissure
  65. What does the transverse cerebral fissure separate?
    cerebrum and cerebellum
  66. What components of the ventricular system are within the telencephalon?
    lateral ventricles and interventricular foramen
  67. What cranial nerve(s) is/are present within the telecephalon/
    CN I
  68. What are the white matter fiber systems of the telencephalon?
    projection fibers, association fibers, commissural fibers
  69. What are projection fibers?
    ascending and descending axons (white matter) from cell bodies
  70. What are the types of association fibers?
    long interlobar fibers, short intralobar fibers
  71. What are long association fibers?
    interlobar- pass b/w lobes
  72. What are short association fibers?
    intralobar- pass b/w adjacent gyri
  73. What is an example of a long association fiber?
    cingulum
  74. What are commissural fibers?
    fibers that cross the midline, passing b/w hemispheres
  75. What is an example of commissural fibers?
    corpus callosum

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