Research quiz 1

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Research quiz 1
2015-08-28 18:04:16
Research quiz

Research quiz 1
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  1. Ways of knowing information (non-scientific)
    • Faith: based on habit/superstition or beliefs. Can be inaccurate
    • Authority: learn through classrooms and teachers or experts in a field.  We often time do not challenge this type of knowledge
    • Rational: learning by doing or thinking through a problem.  Can have good logic but inaccurate result
    • Empirical: we know through our own senses.  Learn through touching, seeing, or hearing.  Can also be learning through experiences.  Problems because not everyone experiences the world in the same way.  Sometime our memory can be flawed
  2. empirical research about psychology
    • Based on assumptions about the world
    • BUT Try to make assumptions explicit
    • Make methods explicit (and capable of being copied/replicated)
    • Cumulative – everything that has come before an idea and designed to be carried on by others
  3. Karl Popper
    • Propositions must be stated in such a way that they can be refuted (memorize)
    • Propositions (hypotheses) must be stated in a way that one can say easily and in advance what makes for refutation
    • What could and could not disprove your hypothesis
  4. Anecdotes
    • Can be a start (our own experiences)
    • But they cannot be the endpoint
    • Not a systematic way of collecting data
  5. In good empirical research
    • Specify the concepts (theory)
    • Identify a good operationalization
    • Standardize the procedures
    • Make the methods clear
    • Make analysis clear
    • Embed in the on-going research
    • Think things through ahead of time and have s systematic approach
  6. Data from empirical studies
    • Usually in quantitative form
    • Subject to analysis through descriptive stats or inferential stats
  7. Types of studies
    • Case studies (including ethnographic)
    • Systematic observation study
    • Surveys
    • Experiments (and quasi-experiments)
  8. Systematic observational studies
    • Be systematic
    • Want to get the same result every time
    • Do not intrude
  9. Survey
    • Interviews
    • Questionnaires
    • Worry about 2 aspects, sampling and  Instrument construction
  10. cross-sectional data
    one point in time
  11. longitudinal
    several points in time
  12. why are surveys not great for causal inferences?
    • cross-sectional data: which came first?  We do not know
    • longitudinal data:  self-selection bias
  13. what is causation?
    • A preceded B
    • A and B covary (linked variation in scores)
    • Some other possible cause (called C) is not probable
  14. Experiment
    • Random assignment (hallmark of an experiment)
    • Elimination of plausible alternatives
    • Manipulation
    • Measurement
  15. what are the Goals of science?
    • Describe
    • Explain
    • Predict
    • Control
    • We can use research for making life better