Chapter 2

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bonus188
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307016
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Chapter 2
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2015-09-09 02:47:11
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Chapter 2
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  1. Atoms
    • Matter was thought to be made from tiny indestructible building blocks
    • First proposed in early 1800's by John Dalton.
  2. Dalton's Atomic Theory
    The atom is the basic unit from which matter is constructed.
  3. Subatomic Particles
    Protons, Neutrons and Electrons which make up the atom.
  4. Necleus
    The compact core of an atom made up of Proton and Neutrons.
  5. Protons
    • Mass of 1.6726 x 10-*24 G
    • Mass of 1.0073 AMU
    • Positive
    • Location in Nucleus
    • Same number of electrons
    • Property is to attract electrons closer
  6. Neutrons
    • Mass of 1.6750 x 10-*24
    • Mass of 1.0087 AMU
    • Neutral
    • Location in Necleus
  7. Electron
    • Mass of 9.110 x-*28
    • Mass of 5.486 x 10-*4  AMU
    • Negative
    • Location outside of Nucleus
    • Same number of Protons
  8. AMU
    • Daltons
    • Atomic Mass Unit
  9. Element
    A substance that contains only one type of atom.
  10. Atomic Symobl
    A one or two letter abbreviation of the element name
  11. Atomic Number
    • The number of protons that an atom has in its nucleus
    • Also same number of electrons
  12. Mass Number
    The total number of Protons and Neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
  13. Atomic Notation
    • To specify the number of Protons and Neutrons in the nucleus of a particular atom
    • 14/7N
  14. Isotopes
    • Atoms of an element that have different numbers of Neutrons
    • All elements have more than one isotope and the isotopes of an element are usually not present in nature in equal amounts.
  15. Atomic Weight
    • The average mass of the atoms of an element, as it is found in nature.
    • ~50% 79/35Br (mass=78.92 amu) and ~50% 81/35Br (mass=80.92 amu).
    • The  Atomic Weight is 79.91 amu, which falls in between
    • Located under Atomic Symbol of Table
  16. Group
    Elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table belong to the same group
  17. Group - Alkali Metals
    • 1A
    • H? - Li - Na - K - Rb - Cs
    • Hydrogen? - Lithium - Sodium - Potassium - Rubidium - Cesium
  18. Group - Alkaline Earth Metals
    • A2
    • Be - Mg - Ca - Sr - Ba - Ra
    • Beryllium - Magnesium - Calcium - Strontium - Barium - Radium
  19. Group - Halogens
    • 7A
    • F - Cl - Br - I - At
    • Florine - Chlorine - Bromine - Iodine - Astatine
  20. Group - Inert or Noble Gases
    • 8A
    • He - Ne - Ar - Kr - Xe - Rn
    • Helium - Neon - Argon - Krypton - Xenon - Radon
  21. Representative Elements
    Groups 1A - 8A (Main Group)
  22. Transition Metals (Elements)
    Groups 1B - 8B
  23. Lanthanide Elements
    Atomic Numbers of 58 - 71
  24. Actinide Elements
    Atomic Numbers of 90 - 103
  25. Period
    • Elements in the same horizontal row of the Periodic Table
    • "Period" relates to the periodic (regular) changes that take place in the properties of elements as you move through them in order of atomic number
    • H and He make up the frist period
    • Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, and Ne are the second period
  26. Periodic Change
    • When metals, semi-metals and nonmetals change in the same period
    • In 3rd period - Na, Mg, and Al are metals then moving to Si which is semi-metal then to P, S, Cl, and Ar which are Nonmetals.
  27. Atomic Size
    • Generally decreases when moving left to right from a period
    • Increase when moving down a group
    • More Protons means electrons are attracted closer to the center, decreasing in size
    • Going down, we begin getting more shells of electrons, increasing in size.
  28. Mole
    • Used when a very large number of atom are involved in experiments
    • One mole of something contains 6.02 x 10*23 items
  29. Avogadro's Number
    • 6.02 x 10*23
    • Is equal to the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure carbon-12
    • 12.01 g C
  30. Molar Mass
    • The mass (in grams) of one mole of the atoms of an element
    • Numerically equal to the atomic weight of the elements (in amu).
    • Example - AW of Li is 6.94 amu and MolMass of Li is 6.94 g/mol.
  31. Ground State
    • Most stable electron arrangement
    • When electrons are in energy levels as near as possible to the nucleus
  32. Excited State
    • An orbit farther from the nucleus
    • When ground state hydrogen atom absorbs energy it's electrons is pushed to
  33. Electromagnetic Radiation
    Type of energy that travels as waves
  34. Metals and Non-metals and Chemical Property
    • Metals - Lose an electron during chemical property
    • Nonmetals - Gain electron during chemical property
  35. Row of elements: Periods
    • 1: 2 elements
    • 2 and 3: 8 elements each
    • 4 and 5: 18 elements each
    • 6: 32 : 18 + 14 (Lanthanide)
    • 7: Incomplete
  36. Electron Dot Structure
    Shows the number of valence electrons a atom carries
  37. What group of elements cannot lose or gain electrons?
    Inert Gases - 8A - very stable and lazy
  38. Element
    Substance that contains only one type of atom

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