Anatomy and Physiology of Heart

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Anatomy and Physiology of Heart
2015-08-30 12:56:05
Anatomy and Physiology
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  1. What is the oxygen saturation of the left side of the heart?
    95% oxygen saturation
  2. What is the oxygen saturation level of the right side of the heart?
    75% oxygen saturation
  3. What two cardiac electrical pathways are located within the right atrium?
    SA node and AV node
  4. Write out the whole word for

    SA node
    sinoatrial node
  5. Write out the whole word for

    AV node
    atrioventricular node
  6. What cardiac electrical pathway is considered to be the pacemaker of the heart?
    SA node
  7. What cardiac electrical pathway helps the right atrium send information to the left atrium?
    Bachmann bundle
  8. What cardiac electrical pathway helps the AV node send information to the right and left ventricles?
    Bundle of His and the right and left bundle branches.
  9. On the EKG, what does the

    P wave mean?
    atrial depolarization and contraction
  10. On the EKG, what does the

    QRS mean?
    ventricular depolarization and contraction
  11. On the EKG, what does the

    T wave mean?
    ventricular repolarization
  12. Anatomy
    What are the four divisions of the Mediastinum?
    • 1.) Superior mediastinum
    • 2.) Anterior mediastinum
    • 3.) Middle mediastinum
    • 4.) Posterior mediastinum
  13. What is the location of the

    Superior Mediastinum?
    inferior border of the 4th thoracic vertebra
  14. What is located in the

    Anterior Mediastinum?  (3)
    • 1.) lymph nodes
    • 2.) muscles
    • 3.) small blood vessels
  15. What is located in the

    Middle Mediastinum?   (3)
    • 1.) Heart
    • 2.) Pericardium
    • 3.) Ascending Aorta
  16. What is the skeletal framework made of?   (3)
    • 1.) sternum
    • 2.) thoracic vertebrae
    • 3.) ribs and cartilage
  17. What are the 3 parts of the sternum or breast bone?
    • 1.) manubrium  (top)
    • 2.) the body or corpus sternum
    • 3.) Xiphoid process   (bottom)
  18. What are the spaces between the ribs called?
    intercostal spaces
  19. What is the number one muscle involved in respiration?
  20. What is the

    Crux of the heart?
    where all the grooves and sulci come together.
  21. Where is the

    Crux of the heart found?
    Posterior side of the heart
  22. What groove separates the atria and ventricles?
    coronary or atrioventricular groove
  23. What groove separates the two ventricles?
    interventricular groove
  24. What septum separates the two atria?
    Interatrial septum
  25. What septum separates the two ventricles?
    Interventricular septum
  26. Atria is considered the
    ________ chambers.
    filling chambers
  27. Ventricles are considered the
    ___________ chambers.
    pumping chambers
  28. What does the left side of the heart pump blood to?
    to the body
  29. What does the right side of the heart pump blood to?
    to the lungs
  30. What three veins drain into the right atrium?
    • 1.) SVC
    • 2.) IVC
    • 3.) Coronary sinus
  31. What are two possible valves that may been seen in the right atrium?
    What are they from?
    • 1.) Eustachian valve - IVC
    • 2.) Thebesian valve - Coronary sinus
  32. What is the most anterior chamber of the heart?
    the Right Ventricle
  33. What does RVOT stand for?
    Right Ventricular Outflow Tract
  34. What are two other names for

    • 1.) conus arteriosus
    • 2.) infundibulum
  35. How many pulmonary veins are there?
    How many veins are usually seen?
    4 total pulmonary veins

    can usually only see 2
  36. The valves of the heart are considered to be what?

    Meaning what?
    Passive structures

    They open and close in response to pressure changes.
  37. Write out the whole word for AV valves.
    atrioventricular valves
  38. Write out the whole word for SL valves.
    Semilunar valves
  39. What are the 3 leaflets of the tricuspid valve?
    • 1.) Anterior
    • 2.) Posterior
    • 3.) Septal or medial
  40. How many leaflets does the tricuspid valve have?

    How many are usually seen?
    3 total leaflets

    only 2 usually seen
  41. What valve has the largest opening?
    Which is in:
    tricuspid valve

    • Males: 11.4 cm sq.
    • Females: 10.8 cm sq.
  42. How many leaflets does the mitral valve have?

    What are they called?
    2 total leaflets

    • 1.) Anterior
    • 2.) Posterior
  43. What valve has an saddle-shape that can be seen on 3D?
    the mitral valve
  44. What valve has two prominent papillary muscles?
    Which are located in?
    And both are called?
    • Mitral valve
    • Located in the: Left ventricle
    • Called:
    • 1.) Antero-lateral
    • 2.) Postero-medial
  45. What is the only valve that all 3 leaflets can be seen?
    the aortic valve
  46. What is the most superior valve?
    Pulmonic valve
  47. What does the pulmonic valve do?
    Prevents backflow from the pulmonary artery.
  48. What are the 3 cusps of the pulmonic valve called?
    • 1.) Anterior cusp
    • 2.) Left cusp
    • 3.) Right cusp
  49. What are the 3 cusps of the aortic valve called?
    • 1.) Right coronary cusp
    • 2.) Left coronary cusp
    • 3.) Non coronary cusp
  50. What is the very first branch off the ascending aorta?
    Coronary arteries
  51. What valve appears like an upside down Mercedes Benz sign?
    Aortic valve
  52. What is the circulatory system that carries blood to the lung called?
    pulmonary circulation
  53. What is the circulatory system that carries blood to the body called?
    systemic circulation
  54. What originates at the pulmonic valve? Called two names?
    pulmonary trunk

    Main pulmonary artery (MPA)
  55. How wide is the pulmonary artery?

    How long?
    3 cm in diameter

    4-5 cm in length
  56. What are the four segments of the aorta?
    • 1.) Ascending aorta
    • 2.) Arch of the aorta
    • 3.) Descending aorta
    • 4.) Abdominal aorta
  57. What four arteries come off the ascending and arch of the aorta?
    • 1.) coronary artery
    • 2.) Brachiocephalic or Innominate A.
    • 3.) Left common carotid A.
    • 4.) Left subclavian artery
  58. What are 5 purposes of the pericardium?
    • 1.) reduce friction
    • 2.) allow heart to move freely
    • 3.) contains heart in the mediastinum during trauma
    • 4.) Barrier to infection
    • 5.) Limits the amount of distention
  59. What are the 3 layers of the heart wall?
    • 1.) Epicardium- most outer
    • 2.) Myocardium- functional inner
    • 3.) Endocardium- most inner
  60. What layer of the heart wall is considered the functional layer?
  61. What percent of the population is considered to be right dominant?

    Which means?

    Right coronary artery feds posterior portion wall.
  62. What two arteries branch off the

    Right coronary artery?
    • 1.) Acute Marginal
    • 2.) Posterior Descending
  63. What two arteries branch off the

    Left Coronary artery?
    • 1.) Circumflex
    • 2.) Anterior descending
  64. What four (coronary) arteries can be seen on the anterior portion of the heart?
    • 1.) Left main coronary artery
    • 2.) Left Anterior Descending
    • 3.) Circumflex
    • 4.) Right coronary artery
  65. What vein has the lowest oxygen saturation in the whole body?
    coronary sinus
  66. What are the 3 important facts about the heart processes?
    • 1.) Electrical events happen before mechanical events.
    • 2.) Right heart events start first and last longer than left heart events.
    • 3.) Blood always flows from a higher pressure to a lower pressure.
  67. What does the S1 heart sound signify?
    The Mitral and Tricuspid  valves closing.
  68. What valve closes first the

    mitral or tricuspid valve?
    mitral valve
  69. What does the S2 heart sound signify?
    Aortic and pulmonic valve
  70. What valve closes first the

    aortic or pulmonic valve?
    aortic valve
  71. What does the S3 heart sound signify?

    When is it normal?
    Rapid filling

    • Normal: in children
    • Abnormal: in adults
  72. What does the S4 heart sound signify?

    When is it normal?
    Stiff ventricle or non-compliant ventricle.

    Always abnormal.
  73. What is the annulus?
    where the leaflets insert.